Rothamsted Research

where knowledge grows


John Andralojc

Senior Research Scientist
Plant Biology & Crop Science

I am currently employed on the basis of my knowledge, competence and interest in the following areas:-- Protein functional analysis particularly in the measurement of Rubisco kinetics from diverse germplasm and of enzymes impacting on Rubisco activity- Identifying extant forms of Rubisco with significantly different kinetic parameters (i.e. relating to rate and substrate affinity) and determining their value in a crop context- Isolating and analysing primary and secondary metabolites particularly sugar phosphates and Rubisco inhibitors- Knowledge of plant biochemistry, especially enzymes involved in the regulation of carbon assimilation- Measurement and integration of leaf photosynthesis, primarily through gas exchange and spectral/fluorescence techniques- Investigating photosynthetic properties of wheat - physiological and biochemical- and integrating these with an increasing assortment of field-based yield indicators, to identify fundamental processes which correlate with yield.- Improving carbon assimilation in the presence and absence of water stress.- Investigating the potential of bacterial carbon concentrating mechanisms in higher plants

+44 (0) 1582 763 133 ext: +44 1582 938266
Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ
Current Projects
Past Projects
  • Improving the yield stability of durum wheat under Mediterranean conditions OPTIWHEAT
  • Optimising water use in wheat
  • Optimising nutrient use in cereals
  • Carbon assimilation for biomass
  • The BBSRC Sustainable Bioenergy Centre (BSBEC): Perennial Bioenergy Crops Programme
  • Exploiting Prokaryotic proteins to improve plant photosynthetic efficiency (EPP)
  • BBSRC Quota Studentship: Improving the thermal tolerance of photosynthesis in wheat
  • Manipulation of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in wheat to improve yield
  • Determining Rubisco kinetic data from diverse monocots


"Biochemical characterization of predicted Precambrian RuBisCO"PM Shih, A Occhialini, JC Cameron, PJ Andralojc, MAJ Parry and CA KerfeldNature Communications (2016) 7:10382 doi: 10.1038/ncomms10382

"Transgenic tobacco plants with improved cyanobacterial Rubisco expression but no extra assembly factors grow at near wild-type rates if provided with elevated CO2"A Occhialini, MT Lin, PJ Andralojc, MR Hanson and MAJ ParryThe Plant Journal (2016) 85, 148-160

"Rubisco catalytic properties of wild and domesticated relatives provide scope for improving wheat photosynthesis"A Prins, DJ Orr, PJ Andralojc, MP Reynolds, E Carmo-Silva and MAJ ParryJ. Exp. Bot. (2016) 67, 1827-1838 (doi: 10.1093/jxb/erv574)

"Photosynthesis and growth in diverse willow genotypes"PJ Andralojc, S Bencze, PJ Madgwick, H Philippe, SJ Powers, I Shield, A Karp and MAJ ParryFood & Energy Security (2014) 3, 69-85

"A faster Rubisco with potential to increase photosynthesis in crops"MT Lin, A Occhialini, PJ Andralojc, MAJ Parry and MR Hanson Nature (2014) 513, 547-550

"b-Carboxysomal proteins assemble into highly organised structures in Nicotiana chloroplasts"MT Lin, A Occhialini, PJ Andralojc, J Devonshire, KM Hines, MAJ Parry and MR HansonThe Plant Journal (2014) 79, 1-12

"Environmentally driven evolution of Rubisco and improved photosynthesis and growth within the C3 genus Limonium (Plumbaginaceae)"J Galmes, PJ Andralojc, MV Kapralov, J Flexas, AJ Keys, A Molins, MAJ Parry and MA ConesaNew Phytologist (2014) 203, 989-999

"Expanding knowledge of the Rubisco kinetics variability in plant species: environmental and evolutionary trends"J Galmes, MV Kapralov, PJ Andralojc, MA Conesa, AJ Keys, MAJ Parry and J FlexasPlant, Cell & Environment (2014) 37, 1989-2001

"Natural variation in photosynthetic capacity, growth, and yield in 64 field-grown wheat genotypes" SM Driever, T Lawson, PJ Andralojc, CA Raines and MAJ ParryJ. Exp. Bot. (2014) 65, 4959-4973

"Evaluation of diverse wheat genotypes for potential biomass production through physiological parameters at seedling stage under controlled environment" G Sanat Shah Khattak, MAJ Parry, J Andralojc, I Saeed and S ur-Rehman Pak. J. Bot. (2014) 46, 181-184 "Genotypic variation in the ability of wheat roots to penetrate wax layers"WR Whalley, IC Dodd, CW Watts, CP Webster, AL Phillips, J Andralojc, RP White, WJ Davies and MAJ ParryPlant Soil (2013) 364:171-179

"Characterisation of chilling-shock responses in four genotypes of Miscanthus reveals the superior tolerance of M. x giganteus compared with M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus"SJ Purdy, AL Maddison, LE Jones, RJ Webster, J Andralojc, I Donnison and J Clifton-BrownAnnals of Botany (2013) 111, 999-1013

"Rubisco activity and regulation as targets for crop improvement"MAJ Parry, PJ Andralojc, JC Scales, ME Salvucci, AE Carmo-Silva, H Alonso, MAJ ParryJ. Exp. Bot. 64, 717-730

"2-Carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) phosphatase: evidence for a wider role in plant Rubisco regulation"PJ Andralojc, PJ Madgwick, Y Tao, AJ Keys, JL Ward, MH Beale, JE Loveland, PJ Jackson, AC Willis, S Gutteridge, MAJ ParryBiochem. J. (2012) 442, 733-742

"Arsenic Speciation in Phloem and Xylem Exudates of Castor Bean"WL Ye, A Wood, JL Stroud, PJ Andralojc, A Raab, SP McGrath, J Feldmann and FJ ZhaoPlant Physiol. (2010) 154, 1505-1513

"Raising yield potential in wheat. II. Increasing photosynthetic capacity and efficiency"MAJ Parry, M Reynolds, ME Salvucci, C Raines, PJ Andralojc, XG Zhu, GD Price, AG Condon and RT FurbankJ. Exp. Bot. (2010) 62, 453-467

"Rubisco activities, properties and regulation in three different C4 grasses under drought"AE Carmo-Silva, AJ Keys, PJ Andralojc, SJ Powers, M Celest Arrabaça and MAJ ParryJ. Exp. Bot. (2010) Manuscript ID: JEXBOT/2010/045641

"Arabidopsis sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase-1 and calcium-dependent proteinkinase phosphorylate conserved target sites in ABA response element binding proteins”Y Zhang, PJ Andralojc, S Hey, LF Primavesi, M Specht, J Koehler, MAJ Parry and NG HalfordAnn. App. Biol. (2008) 153, 401-409

"Rubisco regulation: a role for inhibitors” MAJ Parry, AJ Keys, PJ Madgwick, AE Carmo-Silva and PJ AndralojcJ. Exp. Bot. (2008) 59, 1569-1580

"Prospects for increasing photosynthesis by overcoming the limitations of Rubisco”MAJ Parry, PJ Madgwick, JFC Carvalho and PJ AndralojcJ. Agric. Sci. (2007) 145, 31-43

"Specificity of diatom Rubisco”RP Haslam, AJ Keys, PJ Andralojc, PJ Madgwick, I Andersson, A Grimsrud, HC Eilertsenand MAJ ParryPlant Responses to Air Pollution and Global Change, eds. K Omasa,I Nouchi and LJ De KokSpringer-Verlag, Tokyo (2005)  157-164

"Genetic modification of photosynthesis with E. coli genes for trehalsoe synthesis”TK Pellny, O Ghannoum, JP Conroy, H Schluepmann, S Smeekens, PJ Andralojc, KP Krause,O Goddijn and MJ Paul Plant Biotech J (2004) 2, 71-82

"Manipulation of Rubisco: the amount, activity, function and regulation”MAJ Parry, PJ Andralojc, RAC Mitchell, PJ Madgwick and AJ KeysJ. Exp. Bot (2003) 54, 1321-1333

"Rubisco Activity: Effects of Drought Stress”MAJ Parry, PJ Andralojc, S. Khan, P. Lea and AJ KeysAnnals Botany (2002) 89, 833-839 

"Elucidating the biosynthesis of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate through reduced expression of chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphate phosphatase and radiotracer studies with 14CO2”PJ Andralojc, AJ Keys, J Kossmann and MAJ ParryProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. (2002) 99, 4742-4747

" Decrease of phosphoribulokinase activity by antisense RNA in transgenic tobacco: definition of light environment under which PRK is not in large excess. "MJ Paul, SP Driscoll, PJ Andralojc, JS Knight, JC Gray and DW LawlorPlanta (2000) 211, 112-119

" 2’-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate protects ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase against proteolytic breakdown"S Khan, PJ Andralojc, PJ Lea and MAJ ParryEur. J. Biochem. (1999) 266, 840-847

"Regulation of Rubisco"MAJ Parry, JE Loveland and PJ Andralojc"Plant Carbohydrate Biochemistry" (eds JA Bryant, MM Burrell and NJ Kruger)BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd, Oxford (1999) 127-145 

"Rubisco: attempts to reform a promiscuous enzyme"MAJ Parry, AJ Keys, G Bainbridge, SP Colliver, PJ Andralojc, MJ Paul, FM Banks and PJ Madgwick"Regulation of Primary Metabolic Pathways in Plants" (eds NJ Kruger, SA Hill and GR Ratcliffe)Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1999) 1-16

"The localisation of 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate and inhibition of Rubisco in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L."MAJ Parry, PJ Andralojc and AJ KeysFEBS Lett. (1999) 444, 106-110

"Effect of mutation of lysine-128 of the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Anacystis nidulans"Bainbridge, G, Andralojc, PJ, Madgwick, PJ, Pitts, JE and Parry, MAJBiochem. J. (1998) 336, 387-393

"Separation of the branch chain hexose, hamamelose, by high performance liquid chromatography, and amperometric detection of hamamelose and related compounds"PJ Andralojc, AJ Keys, A Adam and MAJ ParryJ. Chromatog. A (1998) 814, 105-110

"Cloning and Sequencing of a Phaseolus vulgaris cDNA (Accession No. AF041068) Encoding Rubisco Activase"JE Ryan, PJ Andralojc, AC Willis, S Gutteridge, MAJ ParryPlant Physiol. (1998) 116, 1192                                

"Regulation of Rubisco by inhibitors in the light"MAJ Parry, PJ Andralojc, S Parmar, AJ Keys, MJ Paul R Alred, WP Quick, JC ServaitesPlant, Cell & Environ. (1997) 20, 528-534                            

"Synthesis of 2'-carboxy-D-arabinitol-1-phosphate in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): a search for precursors"W Martindale, MAJ Parry, PJ Andralojc, AJ KeysJ. Exp. Bot. (1997) 48, 9-14                                   

"Conversion of D-Hamamelose into 2-Carboxy-D-arabinitol and 2-Carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate in Leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L."PJ Andralojc, AJ Keys, W Martindale, GW Dawson, MAJ ParryJ. Biol. Chem. (1996) 271, 26803-26809                

"2-Carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) formation through a phosphate exchange reaction catalysed by the CA1P phosphatase from French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)"PJ Andralojc, JE Ryan, MAJ Parry, AJ KeysBiochem. J. (1996) 316, 389-393                          

"Altered Rubisco activity and amounts of a daytime tight-binding inhibitor in transgenic tobacco expressing limiting amounts of phosphoribulokinase"MJ Paul, PJ Andralojc, FM Banks, MAJ Parry, JS Knight, JC Gray and AJ KeysJ. Exp. Bot. (1996) 47, 1963-1966

"Incorporation of carbon from photosynthetic products into 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate and 2-carboxyarabinitol"  P.J. Andralojc, G.W. Dawson, M.A.J. Parry and A.J. KeysBiochem. J. (1994) 304, 781-786 

"Catalytic cooperativity in the Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity of spinach chloroplast coupling factor (CF1)"P.J. Andralojc and D.A. HarrisBiochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) 1184, 54-64

"Preparation and characterisation of an ab heterodimer from the ATP synthase of Rhodospirillum rubrum"P.J. Andralojc and D.A. HarrisBiochim. Biophys. Acta (1993) 1143, 51-61 

"Isolation and characterisation of a functional ab heterodimer from the ATP synthase of Rhodospirillum rubrum"P.J. Andralojc and D.A. HarrisFEBS Lett. (1992) 310, 187-192 

"The chloroplast ATP-synthase - A Light Regulated Enzyme"  P.J. Andralojc and D.A. HarrisBiochem. Education (1992) 20, 44-48 

"Promotion and inhibition of catalytic cooperativity of the Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity of spinach chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1)"P.J. Andralojc and D.A. HarrisBiochim. Biophys. Acta (1990) 1016, 55-62 

"Two distinct types of e-binding site exist in chloroplast coupling factor (CF1)"P.J. Andralojc and D.A. HarrisFEBS Lett. (1988) 233, 403-407 

"Activities of the coupling factor ATPase during development of pea chloroplasts"P.J. Andralojc and D.A. HarrisBiochem. Soc. Trans. (1983) 13, 224-225 

"Identification of an Endogenous Con A - binding Polypeptide as the heavy subunit of a-Mannosidase"S. Marcus, P.J. Andralojc and D.J. Bowles FEBS Lett. (1982) 140, 234-236





Measures of esteem


  • Main biological challenges in the optimization of microalgae cultivation processes: Invited Presentation at the Workshop on Microalgae organised by Innovation Norway, the Norwegian Research Council, the Regional Development Agency and Biosciences KTN (UK). Hosted by the University of Tromso, Norway.


  • Cloning, expression, properties and function of the Rubisco ancillary enzyme, carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate phosphatase: Speaker at the 15th International Congress of Photosynthesis, entitled "Photosynthesis Research for Food Fuel and the Future", Beijing, China


  • Rubisco Regulation and Kinetic Characterisation: Poster presentation at the Gordon Research Conference known as: "CO2 Assimilation In Plants: Genome To Biome", University of New England, Biddeford, ME, USA.


  • Regulation by Inhibitors: Speaker at a satellite meeting of the 14th International Congress of Photosynthesis, entitled "Research frontiers with Rubisco, the "elixir of life" in the biosphere", held at Rothamsted Research


  • Make or break: Metabolism of the Rubisco Inhibitor, CA1P: Speaker at the XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna.
  • Metabolism of CA1P: CA1P Phosphatase from Wheat: Poster presentation at the Gordon Research Conference known as: "CO2 Assimilation In Plants: Genome To Biome", Aussois, France


  • Studies on the biosynthesis, Abundance and Role of CA1P and Precursors: Speaker at the Gordon Research Conference known as "CO2 Fixation And Metabolism In Green Plants", Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA, USA


  • Decreasing the amount of a Calvin cycle enzyme triggers flux into a novel metabolic pathway: Speaker at the 6th International Workshop of the Keihanna International Conference on Molecular Biophysics (Japan): "Gene Manipulation for Plant Physiology and Agriculture beyond the Genome".


  • Editor for Annals of Applied Biology: Area specialisation being photosynthetic biochemistry, plant metabolism and enzymology. (Resigned in 2010 to concentrate exclusively on my own research.)