Rothamsted Research

where knowledge grows


Laura Cardenas

+44 (0) 1837 883 500 ext: +44 1837 883528
Rothamsted Research - North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon, EX20 2SB
Past Projects
Principal Investigator
  • Elucidating the importance of the pools of nitrate in soils on denitrification
Project Leader
  • Estimates of future agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation in China
  • GHG (Greenhouse Gas) Platform - Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors
  • Digestate and compost use in agriculture: WRAP
  • Elucidating the importance of the pools of nitrate in soils on denitrification
  • Robust models for assessing the effectiveness of technologies and managements to reduce N2O emissions from grazed pastures: Models4Pastures
  • Inventories of ammonia and greenhouse gases from UK agriculture
  • Linking function to process: developing methods to explore the link between microbial function and biogeochemical cycling in soils
  • Nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from multiple pollutant Cracking Clay experimental sites
  • Potential for nitrification inhibitors and fertilizer nitrogen application timing strategies to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from UK agriculture
  • GHG (Greenhouse Gas) Platform - Data management of the UK National Inventory
  • Minimising nitrous oxide intensities of arable crop products: MIN NO
  • Competitive maize cultivation with reduced environmental impact
  • Scoping the extent to which earth observation data can cost effectively provide agricultural activity information



  1. Owusu-Twum, M.Y., Loick, N., Cardenas, L. M., Coutinho, J., Trindade, H., Fangueiro, D. Nitrogen dynamics from a slurry-treated arable soil under an aerobic atmosphere. In press
  2. Cardenas, L.M., Misselbrook, T., Hodgson, C., Donovan, N., Gilhespy, S., Smith, K. A., Dhanoa, M.S., Chadwick, D. (2016) Effect of the application of cattle urine with or without the nitrification inhibitor DCD, and dung on greenhouse gas emissions from a UK grassland soil, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. In press.
  3.  Guardia, G., D. Abalos, S. García-Marco, M. Quemada, M. Alonso-Ayuso, L. M. Cárdenas, E. R. Dixon, and A. Vallejo (2016). Effect of cover crops on greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated field under integrated soil fertility management. Biogeosciences. 13, 5245-5257.
  4.  Louro, A., Laura Cárdenas, María Isabel García, Dolores Báez (2016). Greenhouse gas fluxes from a grazed grassland soil after slurry injections and mineral fertilizer applications under the Atlantic climatic conditions of NW Spain. Science of the Total Environment 573, 258–269.
  5.  Orr, Robert; Murray, Phil; Eyles, Chris; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Dungait, Jennifer; Goulding, Keith; Griffith, Bruce; Gurr, S. (2016). The North Wyke Farm Platform: effect of temperate grassland farming systems on soil moisture contents, runoff and associated water quality dynamics, EJSS 67, 374–385.
  6.  Diego Abalos, Laura M. Cardenas, Lianhai Wu. Climate change and N2O emissions from South West England grasslands: a modelling approach. Atmospheric Environment 132, 249-257.
  7.  Di Wu, Jan Reent Köster, Laura M. Cárdenas, Nicolas Brüggemann, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Roland Bol. N2O source partitioning in soils using 15N site preference values corrected for the N2O reduction effect, RCMS in press.
  8.  Barrett M., Khalil M. I., Jahangir M.M.R., Lee C, Cardenas L.M., Collins G., Richards K.G and O’Flaherty V. CARBON AMENDMENT AND SOIL DEPTH AFFECT THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF DENITRIFIERS IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS. Environmental Science and Pollution Research in press.
  9.  Loick, N., Dixon, L., Abalos, D., Vallejo, A., Matthews, G.P., McGeough, K.L., Well, R., Watson, C.J., Laughlin, R.J., Cardenas, L.M. Denitrification as a Source of Nitric Oxide Emissions from a UK Grassland Soil. SBB. In press.
  10. Claire Horrocks, Kate V Heal; Barbra Harvie; Jerry B Tallowin; Laura M Cardenas; Jennifer A Dungait. (2016) Can species-rich grasslands be established on former intensively managed arable soils? Ecosystems and Environment 217, 59–67.
  11.  Gilsanz, Claudia; Báez, Dolores; Misselbrook, Tom; Dhanoa, Mewa; Cárdenas, Laura. (2016) Development of emission factors and efficiency of two nitrification inhibitors, DCD and DMPP. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 216, 1–8.
  12.  Shepherd, Anita; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Nayak, Dali; Newbold, Charles; Moran, Dominic; Dhanoa, Mewa; Goulding, Keith; Smith, Pete; Cárdenas, Laura. (2015) Disaggregated N2O emission factors in China based on cropping parameters create a robust approach to the IPCC Tier 2 methodology. Atmospheric Environment 122,  272-281.
  13.  Bell MJ, Hinton N, Cloy JM, Topp, K, Rees RM, Cardenas L, Donovan N, Scott T, Webster C, Ashton RW, Whitmore AP, Williams J, Balshaw H, Paine F, Chadwick D, Goulding K. (2015) Nitrous Oxide emissions from fertilised UK arable soils: fluxes, emission factors and mitigation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 212  134–147
  14. Dali Nayak, Eli Saetnan, Kun Cheng, Wen Wang, Frank Koslowski, Yan-Fen Cheng, Wei Yun Zhu, Jia-Kun Wang, Jian-Xin Liu, Dominic Moran, Xiaoyuan Yan, Laura Cardenas, Jamie Newbold, Genxing Pan, Yuelai Lu, Pete Smith (2015). Management opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese agriculture, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 209, 108–124.
  15. Louro, A., Dolores Báez, María Isabel García, Laura Cárdenas (2015). Nitrous oxide emissions from forage maize production on a Humic Cambisol fertilized with mineral fertilizer or slurries in Galicia, Spain, Geoderma Regional, 5, 54–63.
  16. Jan Reent Köster; Laura Cárdenas, Dr.; Roland Bol, Dr.; Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak; Mehmet Senbayram; Reinhard Well; Anette Giesemann; Klaus Dittert (2015) Anaerobic digestates lower N2O emissions compared to cattle slurry by affecting rate and product stoichiometry of denitrification – an N2O isotopomer case study. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 84,  65-74.
  17. Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Reinhard Well, Roland Bol, Andrew S. Gregory, G. Peter Matthews, Tom Misselbrook, W. Richard Whalley and Laura M. Cardenas (2015) Isotope fractionation factors controlling isotopocule signatures of soil-emitted N2O produced by denitrification processes of various rates. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 29, 269–282.
  18. Jagadeesh B. Yeluripati, Agustin del Prado, Alberto Sanz-Cobeña, Robert Rees, Changsheng Li, Dave Chadwick, Emma Tilston, Cairistiona F.E. Topp, Laura Cardenas, Pete Ingraham, Sarah Gilhespy, Steven Anthony, Sylvia H. Vetter, Tom Misselbrook, William Salas, Pete Smith (2015) Global Research Alliance Modelling Platform (GRAMP): An open web platform for modelling greenhouse gas emissions from agro-ecosystems. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 111, 112–120.
  19. Misselbrook, T., Cardenas, L.M., Camp, V., Thorman, R.E., Williams, J.R., Rollett, A.J. and Chambers, B.J. (2014) An assessment of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from UK agriculture. Environ. Res. Lett. 9 (doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/11/115006).
  20. Topp, C., SMITH, K., THORMAN, R.E., PAPPA, V.A., BENNETT, G., MALKIN, S., CARDENAS, L., CHAUHAN, M.,  MISSELBROOK, T., MUNRO, D.G., REES, R.M., ANTHONY, S. and SYLVESTER-BRADLEY, R. (2014) The impact of weather on nitrous oxide emissions from arable land in the UK. Aspects of Applied Biology, 81-87.
  21. Horrocks, C., C.A., Dungait, J.A.J, Cardenas, L.M., Heal, K.V. (2014) Comparing N2O fluxes from recently created extensive grasslands and sites remaining under intensive agricultural management, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 199, 77-84.
  22. Gilhespy, S., Anthony, S., Cardenas, L., Chadwick, D., del Prado,A., Li, C., Misselbrook, T.,   Rees, R.M., Salas, W., Sanz-Cobena, A., Smith, P., Tilston, E.L., Topp, C.F.E., Vetter, S., & J.B. Yeluripati. (2014) First 20 years of DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition): Model evolution. 292, 51-62.
  23. Fitton, N.; Datta, A.; Hastings, A.; Kuhnert, M.; Topp, K.; Cloy, J.; Rees, R.; Cardenas, L.; Williams, J.; Smith, K.; Chadwick, D.; Smith, P. (2014) The Challenge Of Modelling Nitrogen Management At The Field Scale: Simulation And Sensitivity Analysis Of N2O Fluxes Across Nine Experimental Sites Using Dailydaycent. Environ. Res. Lett 9 (doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/9/095003).
  24. Buckingham, S., Anthony, S., Bellamy, PH., Cardenas, L., Higgins, S., McGeough, K., Topp, CFE. (2014) Review and analysis of global agricultural N2O emissions relevant to the UK. Science of the total environment, 487, 164-172.
  25. A. Boon, J.S. Robinson; D.R. Chadwick; L.Cardenas (2014) Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases in a UK peat grassland, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 186, 23-32.
  26. Garcia-Marco, S., Ravella, S.R., Chadwick, D., Vallejo, A., Gregory, A.S., Cardenas, L.M. (2014) Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 65, 573-583.
  27. Chadwick, D., L. Cardenas, T.H. Misselbrook, K.A. Smith., R.M. Rees., C.J. Watson, K.L. McGeough, J.R. Williams, J.M. Cloy, R.E. Thorman & M.S. Dhanoa (2014). Optimizing chamber methods for measuring nitrous oxide emissions from plot-based agricultural experiments, European Journal of Soil Science, 65, 295-307. doi: 10.1111/ejss.12117.
  28. Horrocks, C.A., Dungait, J.A.J, Cardenas, L.M., Heal, K.V. (2013) Does extensification lead to enhanced provision of ecosystems services from soils in UK agriculture? Land Use Policy, 38, 123-128.
  29. A. Louro; T. Sawamoto; D. Chadwick; D. Pezzolla; R. Bol; D. Báez; L. Cardenas (2013) Effect of slurry and ammonium nitrate application on greenhouse gas fluxes of a grassland soil under atypical south west England weather conditions, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 181, 1-11.
  30. A. Boon, J. S. Robinson, P. D. Nightingale , L. Cardenas , D. R. Chadwick and A. Verhoef (2013). Determination of the gas diffusion coefficient of a peat grassland soil. European Journal of Soil Science. 64, 681-687.
  31. Cardenas, L.M., D.J.Hatch, D.Scholefield, D. Jhurreea, I.M. Clark, P.R. Hirsch, F. Salazar, Rao-Ravella S., and M. Alfaro. (2013) Potential mineralisation and nitrification in volcanic grassland soils in Chile. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 59, 380-391.
  32. Cardenas, L.M.; Gooday, R., Brown, L., Scholefield, D., Cuttle, S., Gilhespy, S., Matthews, R., Misselbrook, T., Wang, J., Li, C., Hughes, G., Lord, E. (2013) Towards an improved inventory of N2O from Agriculture: Model evaluation of N2O emission factors and N fraction leached from different sources in UK agriculture. Atmospheric Environment. 79, 340-348.
  33. Köster, J.R., Well, R., Tuzson, B., Bol, R., Dittert, K., Giesemann, A., Emmenegger, L., Manninen, A., Cárdenas, L., and Mohn, J. (2013) Novel laser spectroscopic technique for continuous analysis of N2O isotopomers – application and inter-comparison to IRMS, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2013, 27, 216–222.
  34. Pezzolla, D., Bol, R., Gigliotti, G., Sawamoto, T., Louro, A., Cardenas, L., Chadwick, D. (2012) Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils amended with digestate from anaerobic treatment of food waste, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 26, 2422–2430.
  35. Dungait, A.J., Cardenas, L.M., Blackwell, M.S.A., Wu. L., Withers, P.J.A., Chadwick, D.R., Bol, R., Murray, P.J., Macdonald, A.J., Whitmore, A.P., Goulding, K.W.T. (2012) Advances in the understanding of nutrient dynamics and management in UK agriculture, Science of the Total Environment, 434, 39-50.
  36. Wang, J., Cardenas, L.M., Misselbrook, T.H., Cuttle, S., Thorman, R., Li, C. (2012) Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland systems, Environmental Pollution, 162, 223-233.
  37. M.M.R. Jahangir, M.I.Khalil, P.Johnston, L.M.Cardenas, D.J.Hatch, M.Butler, M. Barrett, V.O’flaherty, K.G.Richards (2012) Denitrification potential in subsoils. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 147, 13-23.
  38. Skiba, U., Jones. S.K., Dragotsis, U., Drewer, J., Fowler, D., Rees, R.M., Pappa, V., Cardenas, L., Chadwick, D., Yamulki, S., Manning, A.J. (2011) UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, Philosophical Transactions B. 367, 1175-1185.
  39. G.M. Laudone, G.P. Matthews, N.R.A. Bird, W.R. Whalley, L.M. Cardenas, A.S. Gregory (2011) A model to predict the effects of soil structure on denitrification and N2O emission, Journal of Hydrology, 409, 283-290.
  40. Dave Chadwick, Sven Sommer, Rachel Thorman, David Fangueiro, Laura Cardenas, Barbara Amon and Tom Misselbrook (2011) Manure management: Implications for greenhouse gas emissions. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 514-531.
  41. Jan Reent Köster, Laura Cárdenas, Mehmet Senbayrama, Roland Bol, Reinhard Well, Mark Butler, Karl Hermann Mühling, Klaus Dittert (2011) Rapid shift from denitrification to nitrification in soil after biogas residue application as indicated by nitrous oxide isotopomers. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 34, 1671-1677.
  42. E. Dixon, L. Cardenas, M. Alfaro, F. Salazar and D. Hatch, High rates of nitrogen cycling in volcanic soils from Chilean grasslands (2011). Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 25, 1521–1526.
  43. L.M. Cardenas, S.P. Cuttle, B. Crabtree, A. Hopkins, A. Shepherd, D. Scholefield, A. del Prado (2011) Cost effectiveness of nitrate leaching mitigation measures for grassland livestock systems at locations in England and Wales. Science of the total environment, 409, 1104-1115.
  44. T.H. Misselbrook, J.N. Cape, L.M. Cardenas, D.R. Chadwick, U. Dragosits, P.J. Hobbs, E. Nemitz, S. Reis, U. Skiba, M.A. Sutton (2011) Key unknowns in estimating atmospheric emissions from UK land management, 45, 1067-1074.
  45. Junye Wang, Laura M. Cardenas, Tom H. Misselbrook, Sarah Gilhespy (2011) Development and application of a detailed inventory framework for estimating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from agriculture, Atmospheric Environment, 45, 1454-1463.
  46. Anja Bergstermann, Laura Cárdenas, Roland Bol, Lucy Gilliam, Keith Goulding, Ana Meijide, David Scholefield, Antonio Vallejo, Reinhard Well (2011) Effect of antecedent soil moisture conditions on emissions and isotopologue distribution of N2O during denitrification. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43, 240-250.
  47. A. MEIJIDE, L.M. CARDENAS, R. BOL, A. BERGSTERMANN, K. GOULDING,R. WELL, A. VALLEJO  & D. SCHOLEFIELD. (2010). Dual isotope and isotopomer measurements for the understanding of N2O production and consumption during denitrification in an arable soil. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 61, 364-374.
  48. Pilgrim, E. S.; Macleod, C. J. A.; Blackwell, M. S. A.; Bol, R.; Hogan, D. V.; Chadwick, D. R.; Cardenas, L.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Haygarth, P. M.; Brazier, R. E.; Hobbs, P.; Hodgson, C.; Jarvis, S.; Dungait, J.; Murray, P. J.; Firbank, L. G.(2010). Interactions among agricultural production and other ecosystem services delivered from European temperate grassland systems. Advances in Agronomy, 109: 117-154.
  49. Fangueiro, D., Ribeiro, H.; Coutinho, João; Cardenas, L.; Trindade, H.; Queda, C.; Vasconcelos, E.; Cabral, F. (2010). Nitrogen mineralization and CO2 and N2O emissions in a sandy soil amended with original or acidified pig slurries or with the relative fractions. Biology and Fertility of Soils.46, 383-39.
  50. Meijide, A.; Cardenas, L.; Sanchez-Martin, L.; Vallejo, A. (2010), Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from a barley field amended with organic fertilizers under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Plant and Soil 328, 353-367.
  51. Cardenas, L.M., Thorman, R., Ashlee, N., Butler, M., Chadwick, D., Chambers, B., Cuttle, S., Donovan, N., Kingston, H., Lane, S., Dhanoa, M.S. and Scholefield, D. (2010). Quantifying annual N2O emission fluxes from grazed grassland under a range of inorganic fertiliser nitrogen inputs. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 136, 218-226.
  52. Del Prado, A., Chadwick, D., Cardenas, L., Misselbrook, T., Scholefield, D. and Merino, P. (2010) Exploring systems responses to mitigation of GHG in UK dairy farms.  Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 136, 318-332.
  53. Carneiro, J., Cardenas, L.M., Hatch, D.J., Trindade, H., Scholefield, D., Clegg C.D. and Hobbs P. A. (2009) Effect of the nitrification inhibitor (Dicyandiamide) on microbial communities and N2O from an arable soil fertilized with ammonium sulphate. Environmental Chemistry Letters 8, 237-246 (5 citations). (online at
  54. Jickells, T. D., Liss, P. S., Broadgate, Turner, W., S., Kettle, A.J., Read,  J., Baker, J., Cardenas, L. M., Carse, F., Hamren-Larssen, M., Spokes, L., Steinke, M., Thompson, A., Watson, A., Archer, S. D., Bellerby, R.G.J., Law, C. S., Nightingale, P. D., Liddicoat, M. I., Widdicombe, C. E., Bowie, A., Gilpin, L.C., Moncoiff, G., Savidge, G., Preston, T., Hadziabdic, P., Frost, T., Upstill-Goddard, R., Pedros-Alio, C., Simo, R., Jackson, A., Allen, A., DeGrandpre, M. D. (2008) A Lagrangian Biogeochemical Study Of An Eddy In The North East Atlantic, Progress in Oceanography, 76, 366-398.
  55. Cardenas, L. M. , Chadwick, D. R. , Scholefield, D. , Fychan, A. R. , Marley, C. L. , Jones, R. (2007) The effect of diet manipulation on nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure application to grassland soils Atmospheric Environment, 41 7096-7107 (24 citations).
  56. A. del Prado, L. Cardenas, D. Scholefield (2006) Impact of NO3 leaching abatement measures on N2O and CH4 emissions from a UK dairy system. International Congress Series 1293 359– 362.
  57. Hatch, D. J., Trindade, H., Cardenas, L. M. , Carneiro, J. , Hawkins, J. M. B. , Scholefield, D., Chadwick, D. R. (2005) Laboratory study of the effects of two nitrification inhibitors on greenhouse gas emissions from a slurry-treated arable soil : impact of diurnal temperature cycle, Biology and Fertility of Soils 41 (4) 225-232.
  58. Penkett, S., Evans, M.J., Reeves, C., Law, K.S., Monks, P.S., Bauguitte, S.J.B., Pyle, J.A., Green, T.J., Bandy, B.J., Mills, G., Cardenas, L., Barjat, H., Kley, D., Schmitgen, S., Kent, J.M., Dewey, K. and J. Mehven (2004), Long-Range Transport of Ozone of Ozone and Related Pollutants over the North Atlantic in Spring and Summer, J. Atmos. Chem.Phys. Discuss., 4, 4407-4454.
  59. Bol, R. S.Toyoda, S. Yamulki, J. Hawkins, L.Cárdenas and N. Yoshida (2003), Dual isotope and isotopomer ratios of N2O emitted from a temperate grassland soil after fertiliser application, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 17, 2550-2556.
  60. Cárdenas, L.M., J.M.B. Hawkins, D. Chadwick and D. Scholefield (2003) Biogenic gas emissions from soils measured using a new automated laboratory incubation system. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35, 867-870.
  61. Cárdenas, L.M., D.J. Brassington, B.J. Allan, H. Coe, B. Alicke, U. Platt, K.M. Wilson, J.M.C. Plane and S.A. Penkett (2000), Intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements in clean and polluted atmospheres. J. Atmos. Chem., 37: 53-80.
  62. Penkett, S.A., Clemitshaw, K.C., Savage, N.H., Burgess, R.A., Cardenas, L.M., Carpenter, L.J., McFadyen, G.G., Cape, J.N. (1999), Studies of oxidant production at the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory in summer and winter conditions, J. Atmos. Chem., 33: 111-128.
  63. Grenfell, J.L., N. Savage, R.M. Harrison, S.A. Penkett, O. Forberich, F.J. Comes, K.C. Clemitshaw, R.A. Burgess, L.M. Cárdenas, B. Davison, G.G. McFadyen, (1999), “Tropospheric box modelling and analytical studies of the hydroxyl (OH) radical and related species: comparison with observations”, J. Atmos. Chem., 33: 183-21.
  64. Cárdenas, L., Austin, J., Burgess, R., Clemitshaw, K., Dorling, S., Penkett S. and R. Harrison (1998), “Correlations of CO, NOy, O3 and Non-methane Hydrocarbons and their relationships with meteorology during winter 1993 on the North Norfolk Coast, UK, Atmos. Environ., 32: 3339-3351.
  65. Baker, J.M., Reeves, C.E., Penkett, S.A., Cárdenas, L.M. and P.D. Nightingale (1998), “An estimate of the global emissions of methyl bromide from automobile exhausts”, Geophys. Res. Let., 25: 2405-2408.
  66. Sanhueza, E., Cárdenas, L., Donoso, L., Santana, M. (1994), “Effect of Plowing on CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and NO fluxes from Tropical Savannah Soils”, J. Geophys. Res.: 99: 16429-16434.
  67. Cárdenas, L., Rondón, A., Johansson, C., Sanhueza, E. (1993), “Effects of Soil Moisture, Temperature and Inorganic Nitrogen on Nitric Oxide Emissions from Acidic Tropical Savannah Soils”, J. Geophys. Res.: 98: 14783-1479.
Books: Emissions of Atmospheric Trace Compounds, 2004 edited by Claire Granier, Paulo Artaxo and Claire E. Reeves, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, ISBN 1-4020-2166-6 (HB) Nitrous Oxide Chamber Methodology Guidelines, 2012 Edited by Cecile de Klein and Mike Harvey, Ministry for Primary Industries, Pastoral House, 25 The Terrace, PO Box 2526, Wellington 6140, ISBN 978-0-478-40584-2 (print), ISBN 978-0-478-40585-9 (online), New Zealand CONFERENCES


- L.M. Cárdenas, J.M.B. Hawkins, D. Chadwick and D. Scholefield. Poster presented in the workshop on "Emissions of Chemical Species and Aerosol into the Atmosphere", which took place in Paris, France on June 19-22 2001: Application of an improved technique to evaluate controls on N2O emissions from grassland soils.


- L.M. Cárdenas, J.M.B. Hawkins, D. Chadwick and D. Scholefield Biogeomon, August 17-21, 2002, Reading, UK Study of denitrification in grassland soils in relation to carbon application.. 4th International Symposium on Ecosystem Behaviour, Reading, 17-21 August, 2002.


12th Nitrogen Workshop held in the University of Exeter

- Cardenas, L.M., J.M.B. Hawkins, D. Chadwick, D. Scholefield (2003), Use of a 2-pool model to evaluate the effect of fertiliser application on nitrogen emissions from grassland soils, , presented at the.

- Brown, L., L. Cardenas, P. Bellamy, S. C. Jarvis, J. Hollis, R..W. Sneath, S. Yamulki and K. W. T. Goulding (2003), A model-based evaluation of options for the mitigation of agricultural nitrous oxide emission.


- Carneiro, J., Cardenas, L. M., Hatch, D., Trindade, H., Hawkins, J., Scholefield, D. Chadwick, D. (2005) Cattle slurry amended with nitrification inhibitors: effects on nitrous oxide, dinitrogen and methane emissions Proceedings of the XX International grassland congress, Dublin, Ireland, 26 June - 2 July 2005

- Scholefield, D., Jarvis, S. C, Brown, L., del Prado, A., Hopkins, A., Cardenas, L. M. (2005) Feedback and feed-forward interactions between climate change and grassland-based agriculture, Online at: Scholefield_David.pdf> Avoiding dangerous climate change. Scientific symposium on stabilisation of greenhouse gases, Meteorological Office, Exeter, UK, 1-3 February 2005.

14th N-Workshop, Maastricht, Netherlands, 24-26 October 2005

- Cardenas, L. M., Vallejo, A., Chadwick, D., Scholefield, D., Fychan, R., Marley, C. L. R. Jones (2005) Effect on soil N emissions of slurry application from sheep fed different diets 'N management in agrosystems in relation to the Water Framework Directive'

- del Prado, A. , Cardenas, L. M. , Scholefield, D. (2005) Impact of NO3 leaching abatement measures on N2O and CH4 emissions from a UK dairy system 2nd International Conference on Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture (GGAA), Zurich, Switzerland, 20-24 September 2005 218-221.


- Gilliam, L.M., Cárdenas, L.M., Meijide, A., Clark, I.M., Hirsch P.R., Scholefield, D., and Goulding, K.W.T. (2006). Linking Expression of Denitrification Genes with N2O and N2 Emissions, presented by Lucy Gilliam, in Oslo on the 05/10/2006 workshop: Denitrification - systems biology approaches as part of the COST action 856.

- A. del Prado, L. Cardenas, D. Scholefield (2006) Impact of NO3 leaching abatement measures on N2O and CH4 emissions from a UK dairy system. International Congress Series 1293, 359– 362.               


15th N workshop, Lleida, Spain, 28th until the 30th of May 2007

- L.M.Cardenas, D.Scholefield, S.Cuttle, M.Butler, N.Donovan, D.Chadwick, R.E.Thorman, B.Chambers and S. Lane (2007), Emission Factors for N2O emissions from Grazed Grassland Soils in the UK.

- L.M. Cardenas, D. Scholefield, S. Cuttle, B. Crabtree, A. Hopkins and A. del Prado (2007), Nitrate Cost Curve of Mitigation Options for Grassland Soils in the UK.

- Anja Bergstermann, Ana Meijide, Lucy Gilliam, Laura Cardenas, David Scholefield, Antonio Vallejo, Reinhard Well and Roland Bol, (2007). Effect of antecedent conditions on isotopomer distributions of emitted N2O in a UK arable soil.

- A. del Prado, L.M. Cárdenas, J.M.B Hawkins, L. Brown, S. Cuttle, E. Jewkes and D Scholefield, (2007). Blueprints for sustainable nutrient use in dairy grassland-based production.

Others 2007:

- Gilliam, L.M., Meijide, A., Bergsterman, A., Cárdenas, L.M., Bol, R., Scholefield, D., Hirsch P.R., and Goulding, K.W.T. (2007), Correlation of nitrous oxide emissions with gene expression of functional genes involved in denitrification and isotopomer analysis, BSSS Young Scientists Meeting, University of Aberdeen 25-28 March 2007: Denitrification: a challenge for pure and applied science.

- R. Bol, L. Cárdenas, A. Bergstermann, A. Meijide, L. Gilliam, A. Vallejo, K. Goulding, R. Well, J. Hawkins, D. Scholefield (2007), Antecedent moisture conditions influences N2O/N2 ratios and isotopomer distributions of emitted N2O in UK agricultural soil, Cost 856, Denitrification: a challenge for pure and applied science, 25-28 March 2007 Aberdeen, UK.


16th N workshop, Turin, Italy, 28th June until the 1st July 2009

- N losses in volcanic grassland soils from Southern Chile, Cárdenas,L., Hatch, D., Scholefield, D., Alfaro, M., Salazar, F.

- Effect of biogas waste and mineral ammonium amendment on nitrous oxide emissions, Köster, J., Cárdenas, L.M., Bol, R., Senbayram, M., Butler, M., Dittert, K..

- Denitrification potential and N2/N2O ratio in subsoils under Irish grazed grassland, Khalil, M.I., Jahangir, M.M.R., Cardenas, L., Richards, K., Butler, M., Hatch, D., Johnston, P.

- Nitrous oxide emission from arable land in England, Thorman, R., Cardenas, L., Scholefield, D., Chadwick, D., Butler, M., Donovan, N., Bennett, G., Collis, H., Kingston, H., Chambers, B.

- Measurement and simulation of nitrous oxide emission with varying soil moisture, Shepherd, A., Cardenas, L., Del Prado, A., Wang, J.

- Low nitrogen leaching losses in andisoils, advances in the processes involved, Alfaro, Cardenas, Salazar, Hatch, Ramirez

Others 2009:

Measuring, reporting and verifying greenhouse gas emissions from grazing livestock systems. July 21-24 2008, Montevideo, Uruguay (invited talk)


NITROEUROPE, Switzerland February 2010:

- Felber, R., Butler, M., Cardenas, L., Conen, F., Jocher, M., Neftel, A. Evaluation of acetylene inhibition technique for total N-loss measurements in soils with high inorganic N supply. Reactive Nitrogen and the European Greenhouse Gas Balance. Abstract, NitroEurope IP Open Science Conference.

SIMSUG Exeter, April 2010:

- Laura M. Cardenas, Roland Bol, Anja Bergstermann, Ana Meijide, Penny Hirsch, Ian Clark, Lucy Gilliam, Keith Goulding, David Scholefield (Oral presentation). Role of antecedent soil moisture on microbial populations involved on gaseous N2O emissions.

- J. R. Köster, L. Cárdenas, R. Bol, R. Well, M. Senbayram, M. Butler, K. H. Mühling and K. Dittert (Poster presentation). Nitrous oxide isotopomers and N2O/N2 ratios from denitrification after biogas waste application as fertilizer to grassland soil.

- Liz Dixon, Laura Cardenas, Mark Butler, Marta Alfaro, Francisco Salazar and David Hatch (Poster presentation). A trial to establish the optimum 15N enrichment, amount of N and incubation time required to determine N cycling rates in carbon-rich soils using the mean pool dilution technique.

EGU, Vienna, May 2010:

- Cardenas, L.M., Bol, R., Scholefield, D., Chadwick, D., Butler, M., Hawkins, J.M.B., , Vallejo, A., Meijide, A., Bergstermann, A., Neftel, A., Felber, R.4, Hirsch, P.R., Matthews, P., Gregory, A., Whalley, R., , Misselbrook, T., Hatch, D.J.Well, R. (Oral presentation). Putting the pieces of the puzzle together: denitrification, what we know and what the gaps are.

- G.Peter Matthews, G. Maurizio Laudone, W.Richard Whalley , Nigel Bird, Andrew Gregory, Laura Cardenas and Tom Misselbrook (Oral presentation). A dual-porous, biophysical void structure model of soil for the understanding of the conditions causing nitrous oxide emission.

- J. R. Köster, L. Cárdenas, R. Well, R. Bol2, M. Senbayram, K. H. Mühling, K. Dittert (Poster presentation). Nitrous oxide isotopomers and N2O/N2 ratios from denitrification after biogas waste application as fertilizer to grassland soil.

- Mohammad Mofizur Rahman Jahangir, Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil, Laura Cardenas, David Hatch, Paul Johnston, and Karl Richards (Poster presentation). Can subsoil denitrification reduce groundwater nitrate pollution and atmospheric N2O emissions?

GGAA 2010, Canada, October 2010:

- Manure management: implications for greenhouse gas emissions. Dave Chadwick, Laura Cardenas, Tom Misselbrook, Rachel Thorman, Barbara Amon, Sven Sommer and David Fangueiro.

AGU Fall meeting, December 2010:

- Quantitative molecular biology and gas flux measurements demonstrate soil treatment and depth affects on the distribution and activity of denitrifiers. Barrett, M. M., Jahangir, M., Cardenas, L., Khalil, M., Richards, K. R. and O’Flaherty, V.

Others 2010:

- Jahangir, M.M.R., Khalil, M.I., Johnston, P., Cardenas, L., Hatch, D., Richards, K.G. (2010) Denitrification and the N2 (N2O + N2O) ratios at various soil depths under grazed grassland in Ireland. In Proceedings SAC and SEPA Biennial Conference: Agriculture and the Environment VIII. Climate, Water and Soil: Science, Policy and Practice, Edinburgh, 31 March-1 April 2010, 282-287.


EGU, Vienna, May 2011:

- Jan Reent Köster, Reinhard Well, Albert Manninen, Roland Bol, Klaus Dittert, Lukas Emmenegger, Béla Tuzson, Laura Cárdenas, Karl Hermann Mühling, and Joachim Mohn. Isotopomer analysis of soil derived N2O – comparative measurements using QCLAS and IRMS techniques.

- Laura M. Cárdenas, Sonia García-Marco, Sreenivas Rao-Ravella, Dave Chadwick, Phil J. Hobbs, Andy S. Gregory, and Antonio Vallejo, Use of the Taguchi methodology to rank the importance of factors affecting emissions of N2O from incubated agricultural soils (poster).

Nitroeurope: Cardenas, L.M.; Butler, M.; Gregory, A.S., Matthews, G.P., Whalley, W.R., Bird, N.R.A., Misselbrook, T., Laudone, G.M., Scholefield, D., Effect of soil saturation on denitrification in a grassland soil (Poster).

Royal society, London 23-24 may 2011:

- Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, Meeting the challenges of food security and climate change, (oral presentation): Keith Goulding, David Chadwick, Tom Misselbrook, Penny Hirsch, Roland Bol and Laura Cardenas, Emissions and mitigation options for agricultural greenhouse gases.

- K.E. Smith, L.M. Cardenas, R.E. Thorman, D. Scholefield, D.R. Chadwick, M. Butler, P. Donovan, G. Bennett, H.R. Collis, H. Kingston & B.J. Chambers. The relationship between direct soil nitrous oxide emissions and nitrogen fertiliser rate to winter cereals in England (poster).

Others 2011:

- SIMSUG: J. R. Köster, J. Mohn, R. Well, A. Manninen, K. Dittert, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, A. Giesemann, L. M. Cárdenas, K. H. Mühling und R. Bol; N2O isotopomer analysis by QCLAS – a new tool for soil N turnover studies?

- Annual meeting of the german society for plant nutrition ( Isotopomeranalyse von bodenbürtigem Lachgas – Vergleichsmessungen mit QCLAS und IRMS (in german), J. R. Köster, A. Manninen, R. Well, R. Bol, K. Dittert, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, L. M. Cárdenas, K. H. Mühling und J. Mohn.

- The 4th Congress of European Microbiologists, FEMS 2011, Geneva, Switzerland, June 26-30, 2011: Sreenivas Rao-Ravella, Sonia García-Marco, Andy Retter, Dave Chadwick, Phil J. Hobbs, Andy S. Gregory, Antonio Vallejo and Laura M. Cárdenas, Isolation of an EPS-producing Cryptococcus strain from soil: the effect of EPS application on GHG emissions from an UK soil.

- Eurosoil: G.M. Laudone, G.P. Matthews, N.R.A. Bird, W.R.Whalley, L.M. Cardenas and A.S. Gregory, A dual porous model to predict the effects of soil structure on denitrification and N2O emission (abstract submitted, conf 2-6 july 2012).

- British Grassland Society: 10th Research conference (20-21st October 2011), Boon, A., Robinson, S., Chadwick, D., Cardenas, L., Verhoef, A. Surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases in a peat grassland respond to addition of cattle urine.

- Italian National Congress of Agricultural Chemistry: D. Pezzolla, R. Bol, G. Gigliotti, T. Sawamoto, A. Louro, L. Cardenas, D. Chadwick. SHORT-TERM GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS FROM SOILS AMENDED WITH DIGESTATE DERIVED FROM ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF FOOD WASTE.


17th International Nitrogen Workshop 26-29 June 2012, Ireland

- Alfaro, M., Cárdenas, L., Salazar, F., Rosas, A., Vistoso, E., Hube, S., Ramírez L., Nitrogen dynamics in volcanic ash soils with high soil organic matter content.

- L.M. Cardenas, D. Scholefield, D. Hatch, D. Jhurreea, I. Clark, P. Hirsch, F. Salazar, S. Rao-ravella, M. Alfaro, Potential for N2O emissions from volcanic grassland soils.

- Chadwick, D., Olave, R., Laughlin, R., Cardenas, L., Williams, J., Skiba, U., Rees, R., Buckingham, S., Topp, K. and Anthony, S. Methodology for the selection of sites and treatments to generate new N O emission factors and model validation in the UK: the prioritisation phase of the InveN2Ory project.


- Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Reinhard Well, Laura Cardenas, Peter Matthews, Roland Bol, Lena Rohe: ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SOIL DENITRIFICATION. Joint European Stable Isotope Users Group Meeting: JESIUM 2012, Leipzig, Germany; 09/2012.

- Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Reinhard Well, Laura Cardenas, Peter Matthews, Tom Misselbrook, Roland Bol, Richard Whalley, Andy Gregory. : ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION FACTORS CONTROLLING ISOTOPOLOGUE SIGNATURES OF SOIL-EMITTED N2O PRODUCED BY DENITRIFICATION PROCESSES OF VARIOUS RATES. International Symposium on Isotopomers: ISI 2012, Washington, USA; 07/2012.

- Daniela Pezzolla, Roland Bol, Giovanni Gigliotti, Takuji Sawamoto, Aranzazu Louro López, Laura Cardenas, David Chadwick, Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils amended with digestate derived from anaerobic treatment of food waste. 2012- XXX Convegno Nazionale della Società Italiana di Chimica Agraria


EGU, Vienna, May 2013:

- Boon, A., Robinson, J.S., Cardenas, L.C., Chadwick, D., Verhoef, A. Subsurface concentrations and surface emissions of greenhouse gases from a seasonally waterlogged peatland in the UK.

2013 Conference of Global DNDC Network with a DNDC Training Workshop (dndc2013), Beijing, 14/9/13:

- Jagadeesh B. Yeluripati, Agustin del Prado, Bob Rees, Changsheng Li, Dave Chadwick, Emma Tilston, Kairsty Topp, Laura Cardenas, Pete Ingraham, Sarah Gilhespy, Steven Anthony, Sylvia H. Vetter, Tom Misselbrook, William Salas and Pete Smith. Global Research Alliance Modelling Platform (GRAMP): An open web platform for modelling greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial ecosystems.

Soil Carbon Sequestration Conference in Iceland:

- Arindam Datta, Nuala Fitton, Kairsty Topp, Joanna Cloy, Bob Rees, Laura Cardenas, John Williams, Kate Smith, Pete Smith. Estimation of Uncertainty in the DailyDAYCENT Model: Experiment with UK Cropland

GGAA, Dublin:

- Cardenas, L.M., Donovan, N., Hodgson, C., Norris, S., Murray, R., Cancer-Berroya, E., Misselbrook, T., Chadwick, D. Effect of DCD and season of application on N2O emissions from urine patches.

- Cardenas, L.M., Misselbrook, T., Donovan, N., Norris, S., Murray, R., Hodgson, C., Cancer-Berroya, E., Chadwick, D. How do N2O fluxes determined using five static closed chambers and an auto-sampler compare?

- Datta, A., Fitton, N., Topp, K., Cloy, J., Rees, B., Williams, J., Thorman, R., Smith, K., Cardenas, L., Smith, P. Simulation of N2O emission from cropland using DailyDAYCENT.

- Yeluripati, J., Li, C., Chadwick, D., Tilston, E., Topp, K., Cardenas, L., Gilhespy, S., Anthony, S., Salas, W., Smith, P. Global Research Alliance Modelling Platform (GRAMP) – developing a unified modelling approach in the context of climate change.


18th International Nitrogen Workshop 2014, Lisbon

- Cardenas L, Camp, V, Donovan, N, Hodgson, C, Misselbrook, T, McGeough, K, McNeill, G, Laughlin, R, Watson, C, Bell, M, Rees, B, Chadwick, D. IMPACT OF A NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR (DCD) ON N2O EMISSIONS FROM URINE APPLIED TO A UK GRASSLAND.


- Gilhespy, S., S. G. Anthony, L.M. Cardenas, D.R. Chadwick, A. del Prado, C. Li, T.H. Misselbrook, R. Rees, W. Salas, A. Sanz-Cobena, P. Smith, E. L. Tilston, K. Topp, S.H. Vetter & Yeluripati, J. First 20 years of DNDC: Model evolution and GRAMP.

- Rees, RM, Cloy JM, Bell M, Watson CJ, McGeough KL, Cardenas L, Williams J, Chadwick D. Nitrous oxide emissions from UK grasslands - measurements and mitigation.


2014 Annual Meeting Grand Challenges-Great Solutions November 2-5, 2014 Long Beach, CA.

- L. M. Cardenas, D.R . Chadwick, T. H. Misselbrook, N. Donovan, K. A. Smith, R. M. Rees , M. Bell, C . J . Watson , K. L. McGeough, G. McNeill, R. Williams, J. M. Cloy , R. E. Thorman, M. S. Dhanoa. Case study: grasslands/arable – issues and solutions, research networks.

Terrestial Environmental Observatories (Tereno) International Conference, Bonn, 29 Sept – 2 Oct 2014

-P. Harris, B.A. Griffith, A. Shepherd, S. Peukert, J.M.B. Hawkins, C. Eyles, A. Whitmore, M.S.A. Blackwell, R.E. Brazier, L.M. Cardenas, L. Wu, J.A.J. Dungait, A.L. Collins, S. Gurr, P.J. Murray, K.W. Goulding, and R.J. Orr. The North Wyke Farm Platform, a UK national capability for research into sustainability of temperate agricultural grassland management: data & modelling opportunities.


-TH Misselbrook, LM Cardenas, SG Anthony, DR Chadwick and JM Moorby. UK agriculture GHG inventory and improvements workshop “Greenhouse Gas Emissions from UK Agriculture – Are We Counting Correctly?” presented in Scotland march 2015.

EGU, Vienna, May 2015:

- Denitrification as a Source of NO Emissions using Isotope Techniques. Laura Cardenas, Nadine Loick, Diego Abalos, Liz Dixon, Antonio Vallejo, Catherine Watson, Karen McGeough, Reinhard Well, and Peter Matthews. ORAL PRESENTATION by L. Cardenas.

- Nadine Loick, Liz Dixon, Diego Abalos, Antonio Vallejo, Catherine Watson, Karen McGeough, Peter Matthews, and Laura Cardenas. ORAL PRESENTATION by N. Loick.

- L. M. Cardenas, D.R . Chadwick, T. H. Misselbrook, N. Donovan, R. Dunn, B. Griffith, R.J. Orr, K. A. Smith, R. M. Rees , M. Bell, C. J. Watson , K. L. McGeough, G. McNeill, J.R. Williams, J. M. Cloy , R. E. Thorman, M. S. Dhanoa. Heterogeneity of gaseous emissions in soils-spatial vs temporal variability. POSTER PRESENTATION.

-Harris et al. ORAL PRESENTATION by M. Blackwell.


GGAA, Melbourne:

D.R. Chadwick, L. M. Cardenas, N. Donovan, T. Misselbrook, J. Williams, R. Thorman, K. McGeough, C. Watson, M. Belle, S. Anthony, R.M. Rees. Nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine and dung. Abstract for GGAA conference 14-18 Feb 2016, Melbourne.

L.M. Cardenas, G.P. Matthews, A.S. Gregory, W.R. Whalley, N.R.A. Bird, T. Misselbrook, G.M. Laudone, M.S.Dhanoa and D. Scholefield; Effect of compaction on nitrous oxide and nitrogen emissions from UK soils (Presented by Tom Misselbrook).

GFP, Bristol, January 2016

Dunn et al, Greenhouse gas emissions from a reseeded grassland on the North Wyke Farm Platform, abstract submitted to the GFP conference in Bristol 2016.

Harris et al, Data Mining the North Wyke Farm Platform Data Sets, abstract submitted to the GFP conference in Bristol 2016

Cardenas et al., Grazing behaviour, urine composition and soil properties are key drivers of nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine in the uplands (Uplands-N2O)

EGU Vienna, April 2016

Laura Cardenas, Nadine Loick, Liz Dixon, Peter Matthews, Claudia Gilsanz, Roland Bol, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, and Reinhard Well, Elucidating the impact of nitrate and labile carbon application on spatial heterogeneity of denitrification by 15N modelling.

Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Reinhard Well, Laura Cardenas, Roland Bol, Isotopomer mapping: a new approach to determine N2O production pathways and N2O reduction.

Ed Carnell, Elena Meneguz, Ute Skiba, Tom Misselbrook, Laura Cardenas, Tim Arnold, Alistair Manning, and Ulli Dragosits, Verifying the UK N2O emission inventory with tall tower measurements.

19th International Nitrogen Workshop 2016, Sweden


Rachel E. Thorman, Roger Sylvester-Bradley, Kate E. Smith, Daniel R. Kindred, Sarah C. Wynn, Robert M. Rees, Kairsty F. E. Topp, Valentini A. Pappa, Nigel D. Mortimer, Tom H. Misselbrook, Sarah L. Gilhespy, Laura M. Cardenas, Gail Bennett, Steve Malkin and Daniel G. Munro, A NEW APPROACH TO ESTIMATE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM ARABLE CROPS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM?



7th International Nitrogen initiative conference, INI, Melbourne, Australia, 4-8 December 2016:

García-Marco, Guardia, Cardenas, Dixon, Repullo and Vallejo. DMPSA application reduces N2O emissions from exogenous NH4+ and NO3- sources in a maize-irrigated crop

EGF "The Multiple Roles of Grassland in the European Bioeconomy", Norway 4-8 September 2016:

L.M. Cardenas, R.M. Dunn, T.H. Misselbrook, P. Harris, F. Broccolo, R.J. Orr and M.R.F. Lee. The North Wyke Farm Platform: the impact of ploughing, cultivation and reseeding on emissions of CO2 and N2O.

Annual Congress of the Italian society of agronomy (SICA), Perugia, Italy

Cardenas, L., Misselbrook, T., Chadwick, D. “Nitrous oxide emissions, from mechanistic understanding to the agriculture inventory in the UK"

AGU Fall meeting. San Francisco 12-16 December 2016:

Carnell, Meneguz, Skiba, Misselbrook, Cardenas, Arnold, Manning and Dragosits. “Verifying the UK agricultural N2O emission inventory with tall tower measurements”

Rees, Misselbrook, Cardenas, Topp, Watson, Williams, Dragosits, Carnell, Skiba, Manning, Chadwick, Improving Nitrous Oxide Reporting in Agricultural Inventories of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A UK Case Study

Di, Cárdenas, Calvet Sanz, Brüggemann, Loick, Liu, Bol. The impact of nitrification inhibitor DMPP on N2O, NO and N2 emissions at different soil moisture conditions in grassland soil

IFS agronomic conference paper:

Keith G. presented on our behalf: Effect of nitrification inhibitors on nitrous oxide emissions