Rothamsted Research

where knowledge grows

fraaijeb

Bart Fraaije

Phone:
+44 (0) 1582 763 133 ext: +44 1582 938839
Location:
Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ
Past Projects
Project Leader
  • Impact of mutations in the target-encoding CYP51 gene in Mycosphaerella graminicola populations developing resistance to triazole fungicides
  • Rhynchosporium on barley: the relationship between barley varietal resistance, fungicide resistance and the influence of seed-borne infection
  • BBSRC CASE studentship: Recent evolution of Rhynchosporium secalis populations in response to selection by fungicides
  • Understanding the evolution and dynamics of fungicide resistance development in cereal pathogens
  • BBSRC CASE Studentship: Evolution of fungicide resistance in populations of the oilseed rape pathogens Pyrenopeziza brassicae and Leptosphaeria spp.
  • Fungicide performance on winter wheat
  • Testing DNA extracts for Rhynchosporium secalis
  • Improved tools to rationalise & support stewardship programmes for succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors fungicides to control cereal diseases in the UK
  • BBSRC CASE Studentship: Characterisation and bio-prospecting of endophytic bacterial microbes in wheat
  • Identification and characterisation of azole sensitivity shifts in Irish and UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola
  • Assessment of barley varietal resistance to Rhynchosporium (SIBLINGS Subcontract)
  • To determine effects of azole-based fungicide spray programmes on control of Septoria leaf blotch
  • Conacyt Funded Studentship: Adaption of Mycoshaerella graminicola to different classes of fungicides used to control Septoria Leaf Blotch
  • Consequences of intensive fungicide use or integrated disease management for fungicide resistance and sustainable control - genotyping
  • Assessing the risks associated with systemic fungicide seed treatments and the effectiveness of risk modifiers - genotyping
  • *Dodine & spiroxamine cross
  • *DNA-based quantification of Pyrenophora graminae in barley leaf samples

Refereed Publications  

Hawkins NJ, Cools HJ, Sierotzki H, Shaw MW, Knogge W, Kelly SL, Kelly DE & Fraaije BA (2014) Paralogue re-emergence: a novel, historically-contingent mechanism in the evolution of anti-microbial resistance. Molecular Biology and Evolution (IF 10.353) On-line available (in press). http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/04/13/molbev.msu134.full.pdf+html

-  Carter HE, Fraaije BA, West JS, Kelly S, Mehl A, Shaw MW & Cools HJ (2014) Alterations in predicted regulatory and coding regions of the sterol 14α-demethylase gene (CYP51) confer decreased azole sensitivity in the oilseed rape pathogen Pyrenopeziza brassicae. Molecular Plant Pathology, DOI: 10.1111/mpp.12106 (in press).

- Cools HJ, Hawkins NJ & Fraaije BA (2013) Constraints on the evolution of azole resistance in plant pathogenic fungi. Plant Pathology 62, 36-42.

- Fernández-ortuño D, Waalwijk C, Van der Lee T, Fan J, Atkins S, West JS & Fraaije BA (2013) Simultaneous real-time PCR detection of Fusarium asiaticum, F. ussurianum and F. vorosii, representing the Asian clade of the F. graminearum species complex. International Journal of Food Microbiology 166, 148-154.

- Carter HE, Cools HJ, West JS, Shaw MW & Fraaije BA (2013). Detection and molecular characterisation of methyl benzimidazole carbamate resistant Pyrenopeziza brassicae isolates. Pest Management Science 69, 1040-1048.

- Fan J, Urban M, Parker JE, Brewer HC, Kelly SL, Hammond-Kosack KE, Fraaije BA, Xili Liu X & Cools HJ (2013) Characterisation of the sterol 14α-demethylases of Fusarium graminearum identifies a novel genus-specific CYP51 function. New Phytologist 198, 821-835 (IF 6.736)

- Parker J, Warrilow A, Cools H, Fraaije BA, Lucas J, Rigdova K, Griffiths W, Kelly D & Kelly S (2013). Prothioconazole and prothioconazole-desthio activity against Candida albicans sterol 14-α demethylase (CaCYP51) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79, 1639-1645

- Cools HJ & Fraaije BA (2013) Update on mechanisms of azole resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola and implications for future control. Pest Management Science 69, 150-155

- Karolewski Z, Kaczmarek J, Jedryczka M,  Cools HJ,  Fraaije BA, Lucas JA & Latunde-Dada AO (2012). Detection and quantification of airborne inoculum of Pyrenopeziza brassicae in Polish oilseed rape crops by Real-Time PCR assays. Grana 51, 270-279.

- Cools HJ, Bayon C, Atkins S, Lucas JA & Fraaije BA (2012) Over-expression of the sterol 14α-demethylase gene (MgCYP51) in Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates confers a novel azole fungicide sensitivity phenotype. Pest Management Science 68, 1034-1040.

- Fraaije BA, Bayon C, Atkins S, Cools HJ, Lucas JA & Fraaije MW (2012). Risk assessment studies on Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors, the new weapons in the battle to control Septoria leaf blotch in wheat. Molecular Plant Pathology 13, 263-275.

- Looseley ME, Newton AC, Atkins SD, Fitt BDL, Fraaije BA, Thomas WTB, Keith R, Macaulay M, Lynott J, Harrap D (2012). Genetic basis of control of Rhynchosporium secalis infection and symptom expression in barley. Euphytica 184, 47-56.

- Mullins JGL, Parker JE, Cools HJ, Martel CM, Togawa RC, Lucas JA, Fraaije BA, Kelly DE & Kelly SL (2011). Molecular Modelling of the Emergence of Azole Resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola. PLoS. One. Published on-line.

- Cools HJ, Mullins JGL, Fraaije BA, Parker JE, Kelly DE, Lucas JA & Kelly SL (2011). Impact of recently emerged sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) variants of Mycosphaerella graminicola on azole fungicide sensitivity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77, 3830-3837.

- Fernandez-Ortuno D, Atkins SL, Fraaije BA (2011). The use of a CYP51C gene based PCR-RFLP assay for simultaneous detection and identification of Fusarium avenaceum and F. tricinctum in wheat (2011). International Journal of Food Microbiology 145, 370-374.

- Parker JE, Warrilow AGS, Cools HJ, Martel CM, Nes WD, Fraaije BA, Lucas JA, Kelly DE, Kelly SL (2011). Prothioconazole binds to Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 by a different mechanism compared to other azole antifungals. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77, 1460-1465.

- Hobbelen PHF, Paveley ND, Fraaije BA, Lucas JA & van den Bosch F (2011) Derivation and validation of a model to predict selection for fungicide resistance. Plant Pathology 60, 304-313.

- Fitt BDL, Fraaije BA, Chandramohan P, Shaw MW (2011). Impacts of changing air composition on severity of arable crop disease epidemics. Plant Pathology 60, 44-53.

- Fernandez-Ortuno D, Loza-Reyes E, Atkins SL, Fraaije BA (2010). The CYP51C gene, a reliable marker to resolve interspecific phylogenetic relationships within Fusarium species complex and a novel target for species-specific PCR. International Journal of Food Microbiology 144, 301-309.

Cools HJ, Parker, JE, Kelly DE, Lucas JA, Fraaije BA & Kelly SL (2010). Heterologous expression of mutated eburicol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) proteins of Mycosphaerella graminicola demonstrates effects on azole fungicide sensitivity and intrinsic protein function. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76, 2866-2872.

- Van den Bosch F, Fraaije BA, van den Berg F & Shaw MW (2010). Evolutionary bi-stability in pathogen transmission mode. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 277, 1735-1742.

- Fountaine JM, Shaw MW, Ward E & Fraaije BA (2010). The role of seeds and airborne inoculum in the initiation of leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis) epidemics in winter barley. Plant Pathology 59, 330-337.

- Rudd J, Antoniw J, Marshall R, Motteram J, Fraaije B & Hammond-Kosack K (2010). Identification and characterisation of Mycosphaerella graminicola secreted or surface-associated proteins with variable intragenic coding repeats. Fungal Genetics and Biology 47, 19-32.

- Bean TP, Cools HJ, Lucas JA, Hawkins N, Ward JL, Beale MH, Shaw MW & Fraaije BA (2009). Sterol content suggests altered eburicol 14a-demethylase (CYP51) activity in isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola adapted to azole fungicides. FEMS Microbiology Letters 269, 266-273.

- Gilbert SR, Cools HJ, Fraaije BA, Bailey AM & Lucas JA (2009). Impact of proquinazid on appressorial development in the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Pesticide Biochemistry & Physiology 94, 127-132

- Cools HJ & Fraaije BA (2008). Mechanisms of resistance to azole fungicides in Mycosphaerella graminicola. Pest Management Science 64, 681-684.

- Shaw MW, S J Bearchell, Fitt BDL & Fraaije BA (2008). Long-term relationships between environment and the abundance of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Mycosphaerella graminicola. New Phytologist 177, 229-238.

- Cools HJ, Fraaije BA, Bean TP, Antoniw J & Lucas JA (2007) Transcriptome profiling of the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to an azole fungicide using cDNA microarrays. Molecular Plant Pathology 8, 639-651.

Fraaije BA, Kim S & Cools HJ (2007) A novel substitution I381V in the sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) of the wheat leaf blotch pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola is differentially selected by azole fungicides. Molecular Plant Pathology 8, 245-254.

- McCartney C, Mercer P, Cooke L R & Fraaije BA (2007) Effects of a strobilurin-based spray programme on disease control, green leaf area, yield and development of fungicide-resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola in Northern Ireland. Crop Protection 26, 1272-1280.

- Fountaine JM, Shaw MW, Napier B, Ward E & Fraaije BA (2007) Application of real-time and multiplex PCR assays to study leaf blotch epidemics in barley. Phytopathology 97, 297-303.

- Cools HJ, Fraaije BA, Kim SH & Lucas JA (2006) Impact of changes in the target P450 CYP51 enzyme associated with altered triazole-sensitivity in fungal pathogens of cereal crops. Biochemical Society Transactions 34, 1219-1222.

Fraaije BA, Cools HJ, Fountaine J, Lovell DJ, Motteram J, West JS & Lucas JA (2005). The role of ascospores in further spread of QoI-resistant cytochrome b alleles (G143A) in field populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Phytopathology 95, 933-941.

- Bearchell SJ, Fraaije BA, Shaw MW & Fitt BDL (2005) Wheat archive links long-term fungal population dynamics to air pollution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 102, 5438-5442.

- Ward EA, Foster, SJ, Fraaije BA & McCartney HA (2004). Plant pathogen Diagnostics: immunological and nucleic acid-based approaches. Annals of Applied Biology 145: 1-16.

- McCartney HA, Foster SJ, Fraaije BA & Ward EA (2003). Molecular diagnostics for fungal pathogens. Pest Science Management 59, 129-142.

- Lovell DJ, Hunter T, Fraaije BA & Parker SR (2003). Peduncle rot of dwarf wheats caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis. Plant Health Progress, 17 July 2003, on-line.

Fraaije BA, Butters JA, Coelho JM, Jones DR & Hollomon DW (2002) Following the dynamics of strobilurin resistance in Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici  using quantitative allele-specific real-time PCR measurements with the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I. Plant Pathology 51: 45-54.

- Rohel EA, Laurent P, Fraaije BA, Cavelier N & Hollomon DW (2002). Quantitative PCR monitoring of the effect of azoxystrobin treatments on Mycosphaerella graminicola epidemics in the field. Pest Management Science 58, 248-254.

Fraaije BA, Lovell DJ & Baldwin S (2002). Septoria epidemics on wheat: combined use of visual assessment and PCR-based diagnostics to identify mechanisms of disease escape. Plant Protection Science 38, 421-424.

Fraaije BA, Lovell DJ, Coelho JM, Baldwin S & Hollomon DW (2001). PCR-based assays to assess wheat varietal resistance to blotch (Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum) and rust (Puccinia striiformis and Puccinia recondita) diseases. European Journal of Plant Pathology 107: 905-917.

- Ishii H, Fraaije BA, Sugiyama T, Noguchi K, Nishimura K, Takeda T, Amano T & Hollomon DW (2001). Occurrence and molecular characterization of strobilurin resistance in cucumber powdery mildew and downy mildew. Phytopathology 91, 1166-1171.

- Rohel, EA, Payne AC, Fraaije BA & Hollomon DW (2001) Exploring infection of wheat and carbohydrate metabolism in Mycosphaerella graminicola transformants with differentially regulated green fluorescent protein expression. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 14: 156-163.

Fraaije BA, Lovell DJ, Rohel EA & Hollomon DW (1999) Rapid detection and diagnosis of Septoria tritici epidemics in wheat using a polymerase chain reaction/PicoGreen assay. Journal of Applied Microbiology 86; 701-708.

Fraaije BA, Appels M, De Boer SH, Van Vuurde JWL & Van den Bulk RW (1997) Detection of soft rot Erwinia spp. on seed potatoes: conductimetry in comparison with dilution plating, PCR and serological as­says. European Journal of Plant Pathology 103; 183-193.

Fraaije BA, Bosveld M, Van den Bulk, RW & Rombouts FM (1997) Analysis of conductance responses of soft rot Erwinia spp. and other pectolytic bacteria isolated from potato tubers during depolymerization of pectate. Journal of Applied Microbiology 83; 17-24.

Fraaije BA, Birnbaum Y, Franken AAJM & Van den Bulk RW (1996) The development of a conductime­tric assay for automa­ted detection of metabolically active soft rot Erwinia spp. in potato tuber peel ex­tracts. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 81; 375-382.

Fraaije BA, Birnbaum Y & Van den Bulk (1996) Comparison of methods for detection of Erwinia carotovo­ra ­subsp. atroseptica in progeny tubers derived from inoculated tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. Journal of Phytopathology 144; 551-557.

- Lyons NF, Taylor JD, Roberts SJ, Maury Y, Duby C, Masmoudi K, Faris-Mokaiesh S, CorbiŠre R, Mendes-Pereira E, Spire D, Samson R, Malandrin L, Grondeau C, Franken AAJM & Fraaije BA (1995) International programme on the serological detection of bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens of protein pea seeds. EPPO Bulletin 25; 393-401.

Fraaije BA, Franken AAJM, Van der Zouwen PS, Bino RJ & Lange­rak CJ (1993) Serological and conductimetric assays for the detection of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar pisi in pea seeds. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 75; 409-415.

- Bussink HJD, Buxton FP, Fraaije BA, de Graaff LH & Visser J (1992) The polygalacturonases of Aspergillus niger are enco­ded by a family of diverged genes. European Journal of Biochemis­try 208; 83-90.

 

Conference proceedings & book chapters

- Fraaije BA (2014) Agricultural triazole fungicides should not be withdrawn. Abstract book 6th Advances against Aspergillosis, 42.

- Lucas JA & Fraaije BA (2014) Sustainable crop protection: the storm before the calm? Proceedings Crop Protection in North Britain 2014, 61-70.

- Hawkins NJ, Cools HJ & Fraaije BA (2013) Mapping the adaptive landscape of Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 under selection by azole fungicides. Abstract book Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, 1. Experimental Evolution on Emperical Fitness Landscapes, 19.

- Hawkins NJ, Cools HJ & Fraaije BA (2013) CYP51 paralogues and azole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune. Abstract book Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, 22. The Evolution and Genetics of Drug Resistance, 859.

- West JS, Heard S, Canning GGM, Fraaije BA & Hammond-Kosack (2013). New developments in identification and quantification of airborne inoculum. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 43 (suppl.), 16.

- Fan J, Urban M, Parker JE, Brewer HC, Kelly SL, Hammond-Kosack KE, Fraaije BA, Liu X & Cools HJ (2013). Genus-specific CYP51C of Fusarium graminearum identified as a novel CYP51 rather than azole fungicide target sterol 14α-demethylases. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 43 (suppl.), 137.

- Hawkins NJ, Cools HJ & Fraaije BA (2013). CYP51 paralogues and azole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 43 (suppl.), 143-144.

- Fraaije BA, Atkins S, Luo J, de la Fuente PD, Hawkins NJ & Cools HJ (2013). Evolution and spread of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates overexpressing CYP51 or carrying different CYP51 variants in response to azole fungicide applications. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 43 (suppl.), 144.

- Fraaije BA & Cools HJ (2013). Detection of azole insensitive CYP51 overexpressing strains of Mycosphaerella graminicola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 43 (suppl.), 289.

- Fraaije BA (2013). Update on the evolution and selection for azole and Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide insensitivity in UK Mycosphaerella graminicola populations. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 43 (suppl.), 570.

- Hawkins NJ, Cools HJ & Fraaije BA (2013). CYP51 and evolution of azole resistance. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 43 (suppl.), 570.

- Cools HJ & Fraaije BA (2012) Resistance to azole fungicides in European populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola: Mechanisms and Management. In: Fungicide resistance in Crop Protection: Risk and Management. CABI. Wallingford, UK. pp 64-77.

-  Hawkins N, Cools HJ, Shaw MW, Sierotzki H & Fraaije BA (2011). Molecular mechanisms of altered fungicide sensitivity in Rhynchosporium secalis. In: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds VI, 129-134. 16th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium, Friedrichroda, Germany.

-  Fernández-Ortuño D, Loza-Reyes E, Rogers SL & Fraaije BA (2011). The CYP51C gene, a novel and useful phylogenetic marker to distinguish different Fusarium species on cereals. In: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds VI, 413-416. 16th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium, Friedrichroda, Germany.

-  Cools HJ, Parker JE, Motteram J, Kelly DE, Lucas JA, Rudd JJ,  Kelly SL & Fraaije BA (2011). Functional characterisation of Mycosphaerella graminicola sterol 14α-demethylase (MgCYP51) variants resistant to azole fungicides. In: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds VI, 123-128. 16th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium, Friedrichroda, Germany.

Fountaine JM, Burnett FJ & Fraaije BA (2011). Development of QoI resistance in Ramularia collo-cygni. In: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds VI, 199-202. 16th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium, Friedrichroda, Germany.

- Atkins SD, Fitt BDL, Fraaije B, Harvey S, Lynott J & Newton AC (2010). The epidemiological importance of asymptomatic infection of winter barley by Rhynchosporium secalis and its consequences for crop protection. Proceedings Crop Protection in Northern Britain 2010, 81-86. Dundee, 23-24 February 2010.

- Atkins SD, King K, Fraaije B & Newton AC (2010). Rhynchosporium secalis: a historical perspective. Proceedings Crop Protection in Northern Britain 2010, 103-108. Dundee, 23-24 February 2010.

- Clark, B., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A. &. Cools, H. J, (2010). Septoria resistance and azole use 2010. RRA Newsletter 31.

Lucas, J. A. & Fraaije, B. A. (2008). The final straw: crop archives and the recent history of cereal pathosystems. In Cereal pathosystems: papers from BSPP Presidential Meeting, London, 16-17 December 2008 G. Jellis & C. Edwards, eds, 103-115. HGCA, London.

Fraaije BA (2008). Re-constructing evolution of fungicide resistance and disease dynamics of cereal pathogens from crop archives, Gewasbescherming 39, 6, 234-235.

- Lucas JA & Fraaije BA (2008). QoI resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola: What have we learned so far? In: Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds V, eds Dehne HW, Deising HB, Gisi U, Kuck K-H, Russell P and Lyr H, Chapter 9, 71-77. DPG Spectrum Phytomedizin, Braunschweig, germany.

- Bean TP, Cools HJ, Lucas JA & Fraaije BA (2008). Expression of genes encoding efflux proteins in Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates with sensitive or reduced triazole sensitivity phenotypes. In: Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds V, eds Dehne HW, Deising HB, Gisi U, Kuck K-H, Russell P and Lyr H, Chapter 12, 93-99. DPG Spectrum Phytomedizin, Braunschweig, germany.

Fraaije BA, Cools HJ, Motteram J, Gilbert SR, Kim S-H & Lucas JA (2008). Adaptation of Mycosphaerella graminicola populations to azole fungicides in the UK. In: Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds V, eds Dehne HW, Deising HB, Gisi U, Kuck K-H, Russell P and Lyr H, Chapter 17, 121-127. DPG Spectrum Phytomedizin, Braunschweig, germany.

- Atkins SD, Fraaije B, Lucas JA & Fitt BDL (2008).The dynamics of Rhynchosporium secalis in winter and spring barley and the role of inoculum sources. 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology, August 24-29, Torino, Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 90 (2 Supplement), 211.

- Shaw MW, Bearchell SJ, Fitt BDL & Fraaije BA (2008). Long-term dynamics in wheat of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Mycosphaerella graminicola. 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology, August 24-29, Torino, Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 90 (2 Supplement), 107.

- Motteram J, Cools HJ, Gilbert S & Fraaije BA (2008). Quantitative measurements of CYP51 alterations in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola using Pyrosequencing. 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology, August 24-29, Torino, Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 90 (2 Supplement), 305.

Fraaije BA, Cools HJ, Motteram J & Lucas JA (2008). Demethylation inhibitor resistance in cereal pathogens and consequences of resistance management. 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology, August 24-29, Torino, Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 90 (2 Supplement), 69.

- Havis ND, Fraaije B & Oxley SJP (2008). Dispersal of airborne spores from plant pathogenic fungi in cereals. 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology, August 24-29, Torino, Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 90 (2 Supplement), 86.

- Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Fernandez-Ortuno, D., Bean, T. P. & Lucas, J. A. (2008). Impact of mutations in the CYP51 gene of Mycosphaerella graminicola on azole fungicide sensitivity and intrinsic protein function. In Abstracts 7th International Mycosphaerella and Stagonospora Symposium, Ascona, 18-22 August 2008

- Cools HJ, Fraaije BA, Bean TP. & Lucas JA (2008). Characterisation of mechanisms correlated with reduced azole sensitivity in Mycosphaerella graminicola. 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology, August 24-29, Torino, Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 90 (2 Supplement), 81.

- Atkins, S. D., Stonard, J. F., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A., Fitt, B. D. L. & Newton, A. C. (2008). Asymptomatic infection of winter and spring barley by Rhynchosporium secalis: effects and implications for epidemiology and host resistance. In Abstracts 10th International Barley Genetics Symposium (IBGS), Alexandria, 5-10 April 2008

Fraaije, B. A., Cools, H. J, Clark, B. & Lucas, J. A. (2008). Controlling Septoria: can azole fungicides be relied upon?. RRA Newsletter 26, 3.

Fraaije BA (2007). Dynamics of fungicide resistant alleles in field populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Phytopathology 97, S36.

- Cools, H. J., Bean, T. P., Motteram, J., Gilbert, S. R. & Fraaije, B. A. (2007). Molecular mechanisms associated with altered azole sensitivity in Mycosphaerella graminicola. In Proceedings 16th International Plant Protection Congress, Glasgow, 15-18 October 2007 406-407.

- Fraaije BA (2007). Evolution of fungicide resistance in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Abstracts of Resistance 2007, 16-18 April 2007, Harpenden, UK.

- Bean TP, Cools HJ, Fraaije BA & Lucas JA (2007). Sterol content analysis of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates with reduced sensitivity to triazole fungicides. Phytopathology 97, S9-S9.

- Atkins SD, Fountaine JM, Fitt BDL & Fraaije BA (2006). Application of quantitative real-time PCR to monitor Rynchosporium secalis in barley cultivars. In Abstracts International Workshop on Barley Leaf Blights, Edmonton, 23-27 July 2006

- West JS, Fraaije BA, Motteram J, Rogers SL, Lacey ME & Lucas JA (2006). Integration of molecular diagnostics and air sampling to study plant pathogens. In: Abstracts 8th International Congress on Aerobiology, Neuchatel, 21-25 August 2006, 260.

Fraaije BA & Cools HJ (2006) Methods to detect fungicide resistance: from broth dilution to real-time PCR. In: Fungicide resistance: are we winning the battle but losing the war?, eds Bryson RJ, Burnett FJ, Foster V, Fraaije BA & Kennedy R, Association of Applied Biologists, Aspects of Applied Biology 78, 11-15.

- Cools HJ & Fraaije BA (2006) Evolution of azole resistance mechanisms in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. In: Fungicide resistance: are we winning the battle but losing the war?, eds Bryson RJ, Burnett FJ, Foster V, Fraaije BA & Kennedy R, Association of Applied Biologists, Aspects of Applied Biology 78, 21-27.

- Burnett FJ, Clark WS, Fraaije BA & Lucas JA (2006) Fungicide resistance management strategies using barley mildew as model. In: Fungicide resistance: are we winning the battle but losing the war?, eds Bryson RJ, Burnett FJ, Foster V, Fraaije BA & Kennedy R, Association of Applied Biologists, Aspects of Applied Biology 78, 83-89.

Fraaije BA (2006). DMI resistance: an overview. 11th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, book of abstracts 1, 60.

- McCartney C, Mercer PC, Cooke LR, Fraaije BA & Cools HJ (2006). Fungicide resistance in the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis in Northern Ireland, 11th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry,Abstracts book 2, 137.

- Bean TP, Cools HJ, Fraaije BA & Lucas JA (2006). In planta expression analysis in Mycosphaerella graminicola of genes encoding efflux proteins. In Abstracts APS CPS MSA Joint Meeting on Plant Pathology at the Biological Crossroads, Quebec, 29 July-2 August 2006, 11

- Cools, H. J., Antoniw, J. F., Bean, T. P. & Fraaije, B. A. (2006). Transcriptome profiling of the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to triazole fungicides using cDNA microarrays. In Abstracts 3rd COGEME Interest Group Meeting, Manchester, 7-8 November 2006 28.

- Cools HJ, Antoniw J & Fraaije BA (2006). Transcriptome profiling of the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to triazole fungicides using cDNA microarrays, 11th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Abstracts book 2, 140.

- Gilbert SR, Fraaije BA, Bailey A, Cools HJ & Lucas JA (2006). Exploring appressorial formation in the cereal biotroph powdery mildew. In: Abstracts 8th European Conference on Fungal Genetics,165

- Cools HJ, Fraaije BA, Lucas JA (2005). Molecular mechanisms correlated with changes in triazole activity in isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola. In: Proceedings of the BCPC Congress, Crop Science & Technology 2005. Volume C1, 267-274.

Fraaije BA, Burnett FJ, Clark WS, Motteram J & Lucas JA (2005). Resistance development to Qo Inhibitors in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola In: Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds IV, eds Dehne HW, Gisi U, Kuck K-H, Russell P and Lyr H, Chapter 8, 63-71. BCPC: Alton, UK.

- Cools HJ, Fraaije BA, Lucas JA (2005). Molecular examination of Septoria tritici isolates with reduced sensitivities to triazoles. In: Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds IV, eds Dehne HW, Gisi U, Kuck K-H, Russell P and Lyr H, Chapter 12. BCPC: Alton, UK. pp 103-114.

- Gilbert S, Cools HJ, Fraaije BA, Bailey A & Lucas JA (2005). Exploring appressorial formation in the biotrophic cereal fungus powdery mildew. In: Abstracts 23rd Fungal Genetics Conference, Asilomar, 177.

- West JS, McCartney HA, Fountaine J, Fraaije BA, Lee IK & Lucas JA (2005). Integration of spore trapping with molecular techniques to enhance epidemiological studies. In: Abstracts 9th International Workshop on Plant Disease Epidemiology, Rennes, 65.

- Cools HJ, Fraaije BA & Lucas JA (2004). Molecular mechanisms conferring reduced sensitivities to triazoles in UK isolates of Septoria tritici. Phytopathology 94, S20-S21.

Fraaije BA & Lucas JA (2004). Evolution of QoI resistance in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Phytopathology 94, S31.

Fraaije BA, Lucas JA, Clark WS & Burnett FJ (2003). QoI resistance development in populations of cereal pathogens in the UK. BCPC International Congress – Crop Science & Technology, Volume 2, 689-694.

Fraaije, B.A., Butters, J.A. & Hollomon, D.W. (2000) In planta genotyping of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici isolates for strobilurin resistance using a fluorimetric allele specific PCR assay. British Crop Protection Conference on Pest and Diseases 2000, 401-406.

- Hollomon DW, Fraaije BA, Rohel EA, Butters JA & Kendall SJ (1999) Detection and diagnosis of Septoria diseases: problems in practice. In: Lucas JA, Bowyer P & Anderson HA (eds); Understanding patho­systems: a focus on Septoria, Chapter 19, pp. 273-285. Wallingford, UK: CABI publishing.

Fraaije BA, Franken AAJM & Van der Zouwen PS (1994) The use of conductimetric assays for the detecti­on of Pseudomonas syrin­gae pv. pisi in pea seeds. In: Lemattre M, Freigoun S, Rudolph K & Swings JG (eds); 8th ICPPB, Versailles (France), June 9-12, 1992 (pp. 349-354) INRA Editions, Paris.

- Franken AAJM, Fraaije BA & Van der Zouwen PS (1994) The application of conductimetric assays in phytopathology. In: Lemattre M, Freigoun S, Rudolph K & Swings JG (eds) 8th ICPPB­, Versailles (Fran­ce), June 9-12, 1992 (pp. 735-740) INRA Editions, Paris.

 

Project Reports

-  Kleinkauf N, Verweij PE, Arendrup MC, Donnelly PJ, Cuenca-Estrella M, Fraaije BA, Melchers WJG, Adriaenssens N, Kema HJ, Ullmann A, Bowyer P & Denning DW (2013). Risk assessment on the impact of environmental usage of triazoles on the development and spread of resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus species. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Technical Report, pp. 17.

- Fitt B, Atkins S, Fraaije BA, Lucas J, Newton A, Losseley M, Werner P, Harrap D, ashworth M, Southgate J, Phillips H & Gilchrist A (2012) Role of inoculum sources in Rhynchosporium population dynamics and epidemics on barley HGCA project report 486, 45 pp.

- Bounds P, Blake J, Fraaije BA, Parsons D, Knight S, Burnett F, Spink J & McVittee (2012) Fungicide performance on winter wheat HGCA project report 488, 48 pp.

BA Fraaije, FJ Burnett, HJ Cools, WS Clark, N Paveley, K Norman and JA Lucas (2011)Understanding evolution and selection of azole resistance mechanisms in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. HGCA Project Report 475, 111 pages. 

- Oxley, S. J. P., Burnett, F., Hunter, E,. A., Fraaije, B. A., Cooke, L. R., Mercer, P. C. & Gilchrist, A. (2008). Understanding fungicide mixtures to control Rhynchosporium in barley and minimise resistance shifts. HGCA Project Report No. 436. 94pp. HGCA, London.

- Bean TP & Fraaije BA (2008). Testing of fungicide activity enhancers using Septoria leaf blotch as model. Bayer CropScience SA, Confidential report, 44 pp.

Fraaije BA (2008). Control of Septoria leaf blotch using azole chemistry. Makhteshim Agan, Confidential report, 20 pp.

Fraaije BA (2007). Folpet and control of Septoria leaf blotch. Makhteshim Agan, Confidential report, 39 pp.

Fraaije BA, Burnett FJ, Clark WS & Lucas JA (2006). Development and field testing of fungicide anti-resistance strategies with particular reference to strobilurin QoI group of fungicides. HGCA project report No. 392, 112 pp.

Fraaije BA (2006) Effect of the G143A mutation on sensitivity of Septoria tritici to experimental compounds, Dow AgroSciences LLC., Confidential report, 31 pp.

Lucas, J. A., Bean, T., Cools, H. J. & Fraaije, B. A. (2005). Testing an experimental fungicide for in vitro activity against Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici ) (Confidential report for Cropsolution Inc). 6pp.

Fraaije BA (2002) Resistance in wheat powdery mildew to strobilurin fungicides; effects of dose rate, frequency and mixtures. DEFRA commission final report PT0226, 18 pp.

Fraaije BA & Hollomon DW (2001) Novel DNA diagnostic technology in plant disease control using Septoria tritici as model. HGCA project report No. 245, 27 pp.

 

Conferences/oral presentations

- Invited speaker 'Agricultural triazole fungicides should not be withdrawn' 6th Advances against Aspergillosis, Madrid, Spain, 27 February 2014.

 Invited speaker ‘Update on the evolution and selection for azole and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide insensitivity in UK Mycosphaerella graminicola populations. 10th International Conference of Plant Pathology (ICPP), Beijing, China, 25-30 August 2013.

- Invited speaker ‘Evolution of azole resistance in the cereal pathogens Fusarium graminearum, Rhynchosporium commune and Mycosphaerella graminicola’, French agronomists meeting organised by Bayer CropScience, Burnham Beeches hotel, Burnham, UK, 25 June 2013.

- ‘The use of azole and sdhi fungicides to control Septoria leaf blotch in the UK’, Reinhardsbrunn Conference, Friedrichroda, Germany, 21-25 April 2013.

- Invited speaker ‘Resistance and shifts in fungicides’ at Frontier’s Agronomy Winter conference, University of Warwick, 5-6 December 2012.

Fraaije BA & Cools HJ. ‘Investigations into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the decline in sensitivity to DMI fungicides in Mycosphaerella graminicola populations’ 2012 APS Annual meeting, 6 August 2012, Providence, RI, USA.

- Fraaije BA, Hawkins N & Cools HJ ‘CYP51 evolution and azole sensitivity in fungal pathogens of cereal crops’ 11th Symposium on Cytochrome P450 Biodiversity and Biotechnology, 22-26 June 2012, Torino, Italy. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA.  ‘Use of azoles in UK agriculture’. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) expert meeting ‘Impact of environmental use of azole derivatives on the development and increase of resistance to medical triazoles in human pathogenic Aspergillus spp.’, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 26April 2011. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA,Rogers S, Bayon C, Cools HJ & Lucas JA. ‘Effects of DMI fungicides on selection of CYP51 variants in UK populations of M. graminicola’. Reinhardsbrunn Conference, Friedrichroda, Germany, 25-29 April 2010.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Exploiting Rothamsted's classical experiments: impact of agricultural practices on microbes (emphasis on Evolution of fungicide resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola), 12 August 2010, Novozymes, Salem, USA. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Plant Pathology and Climate Change’, 15th Congress of the Spanish Society for Phytopathology, Vitoria/Gasteiz, Spain, 30 September 2010. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Selection of CYP51 variants in UK field populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola: a historic perspective’, EPPO workshop ‘Azole fungicides and control of Septoria leaf blotch’, Rothamsted, Harpenden, 8 December 2010.

- Fraaije BA. ‘What can the archives tell us about changes in pathogen incidence? PPM day, Rothamsted, 18 November 2010.

- Fraaije BA.  ‘Application of real-time PCR and pyrosequencing to monitor the population dynamics of fungal pathogens under fungicide selection pressure’, Tianjin, China, 9 December 2008. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Re-constructing evolution of fungicide resistance and disease dynamics of cereal pathogens from crop archives’, Conference ‘Pests and Climate Change’, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 3 December 2008. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘DMI resistance in cereal pathogens and consequences of resistance management’. 9th International Conference of Plant Pathology, Torino, Italy, 24-29 August, 2008. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Cultural and chemical management of the Septoria diseases of cereals’, 7th International Mycosphaerella and Stagonospora Symposium. Monte Verita Conference Centre, Ascona, Switzerland, 18-22 August, 2008. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA.  ‘Adaptation of Mycosphaerella graminicola populations to azole fungicides in the UK’, 15th International Reinhardssbrunn Symposium, 6-10 May, 2007. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Evolution of fungicide resistance in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola, Resistance 2007, Rothamsted, 16-18 April 2007. Organiser and invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Methods to detect fungicide resistance: from broth dilution to real-time PCR’ and session organizer. Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) conference ‘Fungicide resistance: are we winning the battle but losing the war?’ Edinburgh, 7-8 September 2006. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘DMI resistance, an overview’ and session co-organiser IUPAC International Conference of Pesticide Chemistry in Kobe, Japan, 6-11 August 2006. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA.  ‘Application of PCR-based diagnostics to study the evolution of fungicide resistance’ at Nusbaum Conference ‘Linking Genomic Advances to the Understanding and Management of Plant Disease: Research Priorities for the Coming Decade’, 27-28 February 2005, North Raleigh Hilton, North Carolina, USA. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Evolution of fungicide resistance in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola’ at Dow AgroSciences, 5-6 August 2005, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Invited speaker.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Evolution of QoI resistance in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola’, APS Annual meeting, Anaheim, USA, 31 July- 4 August 2004.

- Fraaije BA. ‘Resistance development to Qo Inhibitors in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola’, 14th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium, Friederichroda, Germany, 25-29 April 2004.

- Fraaije BA. ‘QoI resistance development in populations of cereal pathogens in the UK’, BCPC International Congress – Crop Science & Technology, Glasgow, 10-12 November 2003.

- Fraaije BA. ‘DNA diagnostics in crop protection: detection of cereal plant diseases and fungicide resistance’. Welsh Pest Management Forum: Diagnostics in Pest & Disease Management, 4 November 1999, QED Centre, Treforest, Wales. Invited speaker.