FROM CARBON FIXER TO PRODUCT BANK
The green credentials of diatoms, the microalgae known for fixing carbon, are being boosted by developments to enhance their ability to produce high-value molecules.
Advances in the metabolic engineering of diatoms, the tiny marine organisms
“We can decide which chemical compound we want to produce, and direct the production pathway to a specific spot where the product will accumulate in the organism,” says Olga Sayanova, a molecular biologist at Rothamsted Research.
Sayanova is part of a joint team from Rothamsted and the University of Le Mans who have contributed a review paper to the current issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, dedicated to “The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms” and published today [17 July].
The team’s paper describes work to optimise the production in diatoms of two omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These are EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), which are important oils for nutrition in humans and in animals, notably as feedstock for the aquaculture industry.
“Intense research has focused on maximising microalgal production of omega-3 LC-PUFAs and several bottlenecks that limit oil accumulation have been identified,” says Benoit Schoefs, a marine biochemist at Le Mans.
Traditionally, diatoms are known to fix as much organic carbon through photosynthesis as tropical forests; in the oceans, they are responsible for up to 40% of the carbon fixation, and this role remains essential. But their value as green production plants is growing.
Scientists can use environmental stress, such as low temperatures or nitrogen depletion, to direct the organism’s carbon metabolism to produce valuable
More recent advances have used genetic engineering to manipulate the diatoms production line by introducing new biosynthetic pathways into these organisms. Diatoms range in size from 5 up to 500 microns, half a millimetre or about the width of a human hair.
The team pick and choose which diatoms to use as product workshops; not all of them naturally produce both oils, EPA and DHA, and some organisms are more easy to
Furthermore, as the sexual cycles of many of these organisms are obscure or unknown, classical genetic approaches for improvement are restricted to
“Improved understanding of lipid metabolism will enhance our ability to direct biosynthesis of any
About Rothamsted Research
Rothamsted Research is the longest-running agricultural research institute in the world. We work from gene to field with a proud history of ground-breaking discoveries, from crop treatment to crop protection, from statistical interpretation to soils management. Our founders, in 1843, were the pioneers of modern agriculture, and we are known for our imaginative science and our collaborative influence on fresh thinking and farming practices.
Through independent science and innovation, we make significant contributions to improving agri-food systems in the UK and internationally. In terms of the institute’s economic contribution, the cumulative impact of our work in the UK was calculated to exceed £3000 million a year in 20151. Our strength lies in our systems approach, which combines science and strategic research, interdisciplinary teams and partnerships.
Rothamsted is also home to three unique resources. These National Capabilities are open to researchers from all over the world: The Long-Term Experiments, Rothamsted Insect Survey and the North Wyke Farm Platform.
We are strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), with additional support from other national and international funding streams, and from industry. We are also supported by the Lawes Agricultural Trust (LAT).
For more information, visit https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/; Twitter @Rothamsted
1Rothamsted Research and the Value of Excellence: A synthesis of the available evidence, by Séan Rickard (Oct 2015)
The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council is part of UK Research and Innovation, a non-departmental public body funded by a grant-in-aid from the UK government.
BBSRC invests in world-class bioscience research and training on behalf of the UK public. Our aim is to further scientific knowledge, to promote economic growth, wealth and job creation and to improve quality of life in the UK and beyond.
Funded by government, BBSRC invested £469 million in world-class bioscience in 2016-17. We support research and training in universities and strategically funded institutes. BBSRC research and the people we fund are helping society to meet major challenges, including food security, green energy and healthier, longer lives. Our investments underpin important UK economic sectors, such as farming, food, industrial biotechnology and pharmaceuticals.
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The Lawes Agricultural Trust, established in 1889 by Sir John Bennet Lawes, supports Rothamsted Research’s national and international agricultural science through the provision of land, facilities and funding. LAT, a charitable trust, owns the estates at Harpenden and Broom's Barn, including many of the buildings used by Rothamsted Research. LAT provides an annual research grant to the Director, accommodation for nearly 200 people, and support for fellowships for young scientists from developing countries. LAT also makes capital grants to help modernise facilities at Rothamsted, or invests in new buildings.